scientific journal
  • ISSN 2072-8158
  • -
  • Урал-Пресс: 012688

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology»


№ (121) за October 2019 г.

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Contents:

p. 18-24 /

Vizer A.M.
Vizer L.S.
Dorogin M.A.

Biota of Ob river and artificial reservoirs within the Novosibirsk boundaries

Studies of the river Ob corridor and flooded workings of building materials in the city of Novosibirsk, where the large construction planned, were conducted. In recent decades, the coastal soil of river Ob was silted, which facilitated the introduction of alien mollusk Viviparus viviparus. At present, this invader accounts for more than 96% of the biomass of the entire river benthos. According to hydrophysical characteristics, species composition and level of development of zooplankton, zoobenthos and ichthyofauna, the foundation pit has acquired significant similarity with natural water bodies of the Ob riverbed floodplain. In an isolated stone quarry, biota was formed, combining the features of pond and oligotrophic water bodies with a poor species composition of zooplankton and ichthyofauna.

Keywords: artificial reservoirs, ichthyofauna, Ob river, zoobenthos, zooplankton


p. 42-47 /

Ibadova S.Ya.
Mamedova R.I.

PROBLEMS IN WATER SUPPLY OF AZERBAIJAN AND WAYS OF THEIR SOLUTION

In the context of increasing urbanization and environmental pollution there is a need for constant monitoring of the quality of
drinking water. The article provides an overview of the problems of water supply in the Republic of Azerbaijan on the basis of the
analysis of literary sources and viewing information on electronic sites from 2001 to 2018. The article deals with water resources
of the Republic of Azerbaijan and measures taken in the Republic to preserve aquatic ecosystems. Samples of drinking water from
different regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan were taken to study the quality indicators. The monitoring station of the Ministry
of ecology of Azerbaijan is recorded in the biogenic waste water exceeding health standards. According to the results of the water
analysis, the discrepancy between the series of water quality indicators and standard norms was revealed. To solve these problems, it
is necessary to develop the system of storm sewage in Baku, which exists until today, did not provide for the purification of surface
runoff in accordance with environmental requirements. To do this, first of all, it is necessary to reconstruct existing and build new
facilities. Therefore, in January-March 2018, 224 km of drinking water pipelines and 48 km of sewage lines were laid, which allowed to
provide drinking water to 8000, and 28,000 people to cover with continuous water supply. A number of state programs approved in
the Republic, in which special attention is paid to the water policy of the state. Accordingly, thanks to these measures carried out by
the country’s leadership on water conservation and rational use of water, 15 billion cubic meters of water accumulated in the reservoirs
of the Republic of Azerbaijan as of July 2, 2018.

Keywords: drinkable water, environment, problems of water supply, trans-border rivers., water resources


p. 52-59 /

Hochaeva S.S.

Dynamics of change of physical and chemical composition of water, centralized sources of water supply of the republic of Kalmykia

The article discusses the current state of the chemical composition of the soils of the Kharbinsky federal reserve, located on the territory of the Yustinsky and Yashkulsky districts of the Republic of Kalmykia. The predominant soil composition of the reserve is represented by the complexes of brown semi-desert soils with saline and sand. These soils are highly susceptible to erosion, mainly of wind type. The main reasons are the light mechanical composition of soils, land use and arid climate. The latter conduces to vegetation of only sparse semi-desert grass, which is not able to create dense turf.
Following analyzes were carried out in order to provide general soil characteristics: analysis of water extraction (soils were analyzed for presence of Ca2 +, Mg2 + and Na + cations, HCO3-, CI- and SO42- anions as well as pH), analysis for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and analysis for heavy metals.
The chemical analysis shows that the soils of the settlements territories are more saline than the steppe ones. The analyzed soils contain little humus, the percentage varies from 0,37 to 4,66 %. The nitrogen content in the reserve’s soil varies from 24,5 to 64,8 mg / 1000 g. The content of mobile phosphorus in the analyzed soils varies over in a wide range from 14,0 to 150,0 mg / 1000 g. The analyzed soils are poorly supplied with exchangeable potassium, The content of latter varies from 0,12 to 1,17 mg / 1000 g.
The study shows that agricultural activities make the chemical composition of soils change. If the type and degree of salinization changes, there is change in the macroelement composition of soils and we can note the increase of content of heavy metals.

Keywords: chemical properties, Federal Reserve, soil cover, the Republic of Kalmykia


p. 68-73 /

Chekmareva E.A.

Quality of water of recreational-available water bodies and watercourses of the central federal district of Russia

The article presents the results of water quality assessment of water bodies and watercourses of the central federal district (CFD). CFD of the Russian Federation has a small territory (3,8 % of the area of the Russian Federation) with a high concentration of population (60,5 persons/km2) and low availability of water resources. In the central part of Russia there is a shortage of recreational-available water bodies and watercourses, the water quality is worse in places of high concentration of the population. Reservoirs, lakes, ponds and rivers of the city of Moscow, Moscow and Tver regions were chosen as objects of research.
It is established that in the studied water objects anthropogenic influence leads to an increase in the concentration of sulfates and chlorides, sodium and potassium, oil products and BOD5 of rather to the background contents. Recreational water use in the waters of closed reservoirs (lakes, ponds and quarries with water) can be hampered by: high turbidity, pH>8,5 (alkaline water), high concentrations of oil products. Natural and anthropogenic factors equally affect the formation of water quality in the rivers of the Central Federal District on indicators such as nitrates, total iron, COD. The article provides a list of water bodies of the Central Federal District with a satisfactory water quality that is safe for recreational water use.

Keywords: Central Federal District, chemical analysis, microbiology, recreation, water bodies, water quality


p. 74-79 /

Pristova T.A.

Chemical composition of surface waters (stream) of the vym river basin

The paper contains the perennial study results on chemical composition of a stream, the Kyltovka River tributary of the Vym River basin. The catchment area of the stream is represented by deciduous forests and includes the territories where spruce forests have been cut since the 70-ies of the former century. The stream waters are normally low-acidic or neutral, low-mineralized, hydrocarbonate-calcium-magnesium by composition. Concentrations of Co, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb and Zn in the stream waters are very low, less than 0,0002 and 0,002 mg/dm3, correspondingly. The study chemical composition components clearly demonstrate seasonal changes: concentrations of HCO3-, DOC, IC, Stot, Ntot, Ptot, Ca2 +, K +, Fe2 +3+ in the stream waters are normally high in summer due to organic matter active vegetation and decomposition. In contrast with surface waters in spruce forests, the stream under study is prominent through a higher content of anions and organic matter. The average content of chemical composition components in waters of the investigated stream does not exceed the maximum permissible concentration, except for Mn, Fe, and Al. The obtained results allow to judge on the chemical composition of surface waters formed under the influence of secondary deciduous forests. The data can be used as a background information when water quality monitoring in the middle taiga zone.

Keywords: chemical composition, middle taiga, secondary forests, stream


p. 93-98 /

Romanova E.B.
Ryabinina E.S.
Shapovalova K.V.
Boryakov A.V.

Cytogenetic instability and the accumulation of heavy metals in the tissues of pelophylax ridibundus living in the urban area

Analysis of the intensity of mutagenesis and cytogenetic resistance of the organism is an important approach to the study of adaptive strategies of species. The aim of the work was to assess the percentage of erythrocyte with micronuclei in the peripheral blood and the accumulation of heavy metals (Mn, Cu, Cr, Al, Zn, Sr) in the organs of Pelophylax ridibundus in the urban environment and natural transformation. Hydrochemical analysis determined the content of a number of pollutants in the studied reservoirs: iron, manganese, copper, chromium, nitrate and nitrite ions, lead, cobalt, nickel, zinc, sulfates and sulfides and calculated the specific combinatorial index of water pollution (SCIWP). The number of erythrocyte, leukocyte and leukogram were determined by the conventional method. Four types of micronuclei were isolated in blood erythrocytes and their areas were calculated (μm2). The content of heavy metals in the tissues of Pelophylax ridibundus was determined by the atomic-emission method and the coefficients of biological absorption and accumulation were calculated. In conditions of increased pollution of the aquatic environment in the blood of lake frogs leukopenia was detected, indicating a violation of normal blood formation and a decrease in the body's immune defense. Against the background of a low leukocyte count, there was a decrease in the number of lymphocytes and an increase in the proportion of neutrophilic granulocytes. All populations were characterized by a high content of erythrocytes with micronuclei, the most frequently attached and absent rod-shaped micronuclei. The average area of the attached micronuclei was (1.2 ± 0.04) μm2. In high concentrations, heavy metals are found in the spleen (chromium) and bones (zinc, strontium) of frogs. Copper ions accumulated in the heart muscle and liver. The maximum biological absorption coefficient is established for Mn, Cu, Cr, Al, and Zn. The results obtained indicated a high degree of accumulation pollutants of natural and technogenic origin, an increase in cytogenetic instability and a decrease in the protective immune responses of Pelophylax ridibundus living in urban environments.

Keywords: bioindication, heavy metals, micronucleus test, Pelophylax lessonae


p. 131-136 /

Hutoryanskij V.A.
Hahinov V.V.
Kustova O.V.
Gorshkov A.G.

Assessment of the stability of the drug isolated from sulphide mineral water Novonukutskaya

In recent years, the antioxidant, anticancer properties of sulfane sulfur and its role as a regulator of the activity of many enzymes have been actively studied, but the balneological ef-fects of mineral waters on these processes are not discussed. A characteristic feature of Matses-tian type hydrogen sulphide sources that exhibit high balonologic activity is the presence of inor-ganic and cyclic organic sulphons. The results of the evaluation of the stability of the preparation isolated from the sulfide source Novonukutsky based on the analysis of free and polysulfide sul-fur by methods of solvent extraction are presented. Registration on the HPLC chromatograms of peaks of sulfur allotropes - S7 and S9, along with elemental sulfur is attributed to an artifact, the appearance of which may be associated with the decomposition of sulfanes during the analysis. It is shown that in addition to hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur and sulphons are important balne-ological components. The data obtained show that the therapeutic activity of the drug can be de-termined by a higher concentration of sulfides and polysulfides, and the contribution of molecu-lar sulfur is negligible. The decrease in the activity of the drug is associated with the oxidation of polysulfides to sulfates. The results obtained suggest that further research in this direction may make adjustments to existing ideas about the mechanism of the therapeutic action of Matsesta-type sulphide mineral waters, since the therapeutic effect of this type of mineral waters is still associated only with the presence of hydrogen sulfide and a salt matrix.

Keywords: : inorganic and organic sulfanes, HPLC, mineral waters, sulfur allotropes


p. 149-153 /

Sargisyan S.A.
Kobelyan R.O.

A study of some hydrochemical indicatorswater and the number of saprophytesbacteria in the autumn period along the course of the river Hrazdan

In 10 sections of the Hrazdan river in the autumn period, the dependence of water permanganate oxidation on the number of saprophytic bacteria was studied. Within the boundary of one section, a directly proportional relationship between these parameters is observed in all the 10 sections examined, taking into account the water temperature factor.It is noted that as the natural hardness of the water rises, the degree of linkage of organics with salts is promoted. The results are discussed from the point of view of the mechanisms of self-cleaning of water.

Keywords: connected with hardness salts, number of saprophytes, water permanganate oxidation