scientific journal
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Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology» № 1-2 (118) за February 2019 г.</H3>

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology»


№ 1-2 (118) за February 2019 г.

..

Contents:

p. 148-154 /

Krasnova T.A.
Gorelkina A.K.
Gora N.V.
Tymoschuk I.V.

Kinetics of sorption extraction of trichloroethylene from aqueous solutions by active carbons

Pollution of the environment poses a great danger to ecosystems and human health. The wastewater is discharged into the reservoirs insufficiently purified or without purification. To extract organic substances from water bodies use carbon sorbents. Purpose of the study: the trichlorethylene content was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The limiting stage of the kinetics of trichlorethylene adsorption was established using a pseudo-first-order model, pseudo-second order, and the Marutovsky method. The work of mass transfer during trichloroethylene adsorption on A.C. Coefficients of external mass transfer for explored coal are calculated, their magnitudes are close and have fairly high values, which indicates high speed of sorption process limiting by external mass transfer. The scientific significance of the research results lies in the development of the theory of adsorption of organic substances by the example of trichlorethylene with carbon sorbents.
Data for engineering calculation of adsorption column parameters are found.

Keywords: active coals, adsorption, trichloroethylene, water


p. 155-160 /

Isahanova A.T.

Modified bentonite as a sorbent to purify water from arsenic compounds

Bentonite, modified with zinc hydroxide, was obtained. Its texture characteristics are determined. Optimal conditions for extraction of arsenic ions were selected: with a sample of 1 g, a treatment time of 2 hours and an arsenic concentration of 0.1 mg / l, the extraction rate was 82.1%.
The possibility of removing arsenic from model solutions of different concentrations is shown. Desorption of arsenic from spent bentonite was studied.

Keywords: arsenic, desorption, modified bentonite, sorption, water


p. 63-68 /

Cybekmitov G.C.
Kuklin A.P.
Tashlykova N.A.
Bazarova B.B.
Gorlacheva E.P.
Itigilova M.C.
Afonina E.Yu.
Matafonov P.V.

Ecological and geochemical influence of hydrobionts to the accumulation of heavy metals in the ecosystem of Lake Kenon

In conditions of the increasing anthropogenic load to the environment, special attention is given to the problems of observation and fixation of changes to monitor the ecological state of the biosphere and its productivity.The aim of this work is to estimate the accumulation of heavy metals (Hg, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, Mn) by the hydrobionts of Lake Kenon. Using standard methods of hydrochemical and hydrobiological studies the role of hydrobionts is evaluated in the accumulation of heavy metals (HM) in the ecosystem and also the types of biological indicators has revealed. It is identified that HM to a great extent accumulate in the biomass of zoobenthos and aquatic vegetation due to their contact with sediments. In the Charophyta algae concentration of HM is higher compared to Potamogeton sp. According to their nutrition, the highest content of Hg has been revealed in facultative predator of Perca fluviatilis and herbivorous Leuciscus waleckii inhabiting thickets of Potamogeton. The content of Hg in the muscles of P. fluviatilis reaches to 0.69 mg/kg, Zn from 98.3 mg/kg (liver) to 105.0 mg/kg (bones). Zn has been detected in the body of Carassius auratus gibelio from 78,8 mg/kg (muscle) to 344 mg/kg (liver) and Cu - 22.3 mg/kg (liver). Filtration waters from the ash dump are the main source of HM to the lake in dry years, which comes in a direct stream to Lake Kenon. As a result, it is necessary to conduct natural and economic measures to capture runoff and disposal of ash and slag from combined heat and power plant (CHP-1).

Keywords: aquatic ecosystem, heavy metals, hydrobionts, lake Kenon


p. 161-167 /

Turaev D.Yu.

Purification of washing water and solutions from ions of cadmium by electrolysis and membranous electrolysis

Degree of extraction is shown and final ion density of cadmium is defined at research of process of purification of washing water and solutions of the galvanic production from ions of cadmium by electrolysis and membranous electrolysis. The offered methods allow to reduce concentration of toxic ions of cadmium to 0,1-0,07 g/l in the solutions containing sulphate or chlorides-ions. Degree of extraction of ions of cadmium from electrolytes of cadmium plating reaches 98,6-99,7 %. Electrolysis in a two-chamber cell with anion-exchange membrane allows to return in production not only metal cadmium, but also a sulfuric acid solution. From the solutions containing chlorides-ions, it is recommended to make removal of ions of cadmium a method of membranous electrolysis separating the insoluble anode by a cation-exchange membrane for prevention of allocation of toxic chlorine.

Keywords: cadmium ions, membranous electrolysis, washing water, сhlorides and sulphate electrolyte of cadmium electroplating


p. 90-96 /

Ryabushko V.I.
Gureeva E.V.
Prazukin A.V.
Bobko N.I.
Nehoroshev M.V.

The content of trace elements in branches of the brown alga Cystoseira barbata (Stackhouse) C. Agardh 1820 (Black sea)

Brown algae are good bioindicators of coastal water pollution with heavy metals and other elements. The use of branches of Cystoseira barbata with the seven-month-long life cycle for this purpose enables conducting monitoring of water area pollution in a relatively short period of time. This work aims at obtaining new data on the concentration of microelements in five age groups of Cystoseira branches: (I) up to 1,9 months old, (II) 2-3 months old, (III) 3-5 months old, (IV) 5-6 months old and (V) over 6 months old ones. The content of 32 elements is determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Most elements (70 %) have maximum concentrations in the second age group of the algae branches. The high content of elements in the young branches is likely to be associated with intensive plant metabolism in the growth process. The average concentrations of macrominerals and trace elements in the Cystoseira branches decrease in the following order: Al > Br > Si > Sr > P > Fe > La > F > Ba > As > Zn > Rb > Y > Mn > Ni > Cu > Bi > Pb > W > Cr > Se > Zr > V > Ti > Cd > Hg > Ga > U > Sb > Th > Ge > Be.

Keywords: Black Sea, brown seaweed Cystoseira barbata, trace elements.


p. 168-174 /

Sisse Vame
Tcharo Honore

Activity of modified titanium oxides (Cu / TiO2, Au / TiO2) for photodegradation of 4-nitrophenol

The supply of drinking water to the local population remains one of the most pressing problems in the world, especially in Africa. The limited access to drinking water, especially for residents of remote places (villages, provinces), forces them to use untreated or weakly purified water obtained from wells and / or rivers.
In addition, the technology of water treatment with the removal of pollutants to obtain high-quality drinking water is either absent or outdated and inefficient.
The scientific and theoretical study and development of photodegradation technology based on modified titanium oxides using the example of Cu/TiO2, Au/TiO2 is certainly a key factor in solving water quality problems and developing new hybrid TiO2 photocatalysts.

Keywords: metals, modified titanium oxides, organic pollutants, photodegradation, UV radiation


p. 34-40 /

Zhigzhitzhapova S.V.
Pavlov I.A.
Shiretorova V.G.
Dylenova E.P.
Radnaeva L.D.
Tulohonov A.K.

Metal content in aquatic plants of Lake Gusinoe

Lake Gusinoe is the second largest fresh waterbody on the territory of Republic of Buryatia after Lake Baikal. Anthropogenic impact has constantly been growing since the Kholboldzhinsky opencut coal mine and the Gusinoozersky State Regional Power Plant (Gusinoozersky SRPP ) developed in 1961-1976, as Lake Gusinoe is a heat sink. At the same time Lake Gusinoe is the only source of drinking and household water supply for Gusinoozersk city and other neighbour villages. The aim of the research is to study the concentrations of metals in water plants growing within Lake Gusinoe. The quantitative content of Fe, Mn, Al, Ba, Zn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg was determined in aquatic higher plants, mosses, charophytes and green filamentous algae using atomic emission spectrometry method with inductive coupled plasma (ICP). The comparative analysis of accumulation of metals in water plants of Gusinoe Lake was conducted. As the result, they accumulate the majority of analyzed metals in larger quantities that in other Siberian heat sinks. The greatest amount of metals is accumulated by plants growing in the zone of Gusinoozersky SRPP, especially by filamentous algae.

Keywords: anthropogenic impact, aquatic plants, heavy metals, Lake Gusinoe


p. 175-175 /

Gotovcev A.V.




p. 46-56 /

Suchkova K.V.
Motovilov Yu.G.
Edelshtejn K.K.
Puklakov V.V.
Erina O.N.
Sokolov D.I.

Modeling the genetic components of river runoff using a hydrochemical method of identifying water masses

The physically-based river runoff formation model ECOMAG has been adapted to simulate hydrological processes. The main goal of this study was to correctly simulate the genetic components of the runoff using the hydrochemical methods to identify water masses when calibrating model parameters. A technique based on the chemical–statistical analysis of the water mass mixture composition was applied for hydrograph separation by genetic components. The ECOMAG model has been adapted for the Mozhaisk Reservoir watershed. Many years runoff hydrographs from 3 gauging stations and hydrochemical data from which the genetic components of the river runoff have been determined were used to calibrate model parameters. A satisfactory agreement has been obtained between the runoff hydrographs from gauge stations and the hydrographs simulated by the model and obtained by analyzing hydrochemical data of the genetic components of the river water. The regularities of the annual distribution of the genetic runoff components have been analyzed and the genetic types of waters prevailing in different phases of water regime have been demonstrated. The proposed method of determining model parameters by hydrometric and hydrogeochemical data allows simulation of the behavior of the water sources and description of the spatial-temporal genetic structure of the river runoff.

Keywords: genetic components, hydrogeochemical data, hydrograph, river runoff formation, simulation


p. 69-76 /

Valiev V.S.
Ivanov D.V.
Shagidullin R.R.
Hasanov R.R.
Shamaev D.E.
Mustafina L.K.
Shurmina N.V.
Bogdanova O.A.

Probabilistic assessment of surface water pollution(on the example of the river Kazanka)

An approach is analyzed that uses the method of probabilistic estimates to establish the quality of surface waters by hydrochemical indicators, which does not require long or spatially-distributed series of observations. The probability of an event (exceeding the maximum permissible concentration) at the site where the observation was performed is equal to the ratio of the product of the share of all events in this section and the proportion of the relative number of observations on the site to the sum of all similar products over all sections. On the example of Kazanka river demonstrated the possibility of determining the indices of the probability of exceeding the normative values at various segments of its flow both for individual pollutants and for groups of indicators (basic ions, biogenic elements, heavy metals) and their high convergence with the specific combinatory index of water pollution.

Keywords: hydrochemical monitoring, methods of probability statistics, the river Kazanka, water quality assessment


p. 83-89 /

Nikolaeva L.A.
Husnutdinov A.N.

The solution of environmental problems of the industrial enterprises when cleaning gas emissions by the granulated slime

In the last decade unresolved environmental issues and problems continue to increase in various industries. One of the reasons is vulnerability of the environment from waste of production activity. So, at the industrial enterprises a significant amount of the harmful gas emissions and sewage is formed. In work it is offered to make cleaning of gas emissions of the industrial enterprises by the adsorptive method. As the adsorptive material withdrawal of power – the slime of chemical water purification of the Kazan thermal power plant -1 which is formed at coagulation and lime application of natural water is used. The chemical composition of slime, technology of receiving the granulated sorptive material on its basis is presented. The hydrogen sulfide adsorption isotherm is constructed by material, its sorption capacity is determined. Optimum characteristics of an adsorber of periodic action with a motionless layer of the developed material are calculated. The way of elimination of liquid drains of production is presented. Calculation of economic and ecological effect of modernization of the technological scheme of cleaning of gas emissions of hydrogen sulfide of a production line of thiokol of public corporation «Kazan plant of synthetic rubber»

Keywords: adsorber, gas emissions, hydrogen sulfide, liquid drains, regeneration, the granulated slime, water purification slime


p. 77-82 /

Shajhiev I.G,
Galihanov M.F.
Dryahlov V.O.
Alekseeva M.Yu.
Fazullin D.D.

The effect of demulsifier and parameters of processing of polysulfonamide membranes by corona discharge for separation of water-oil emulsions

It is investigated the influence of the parameters of the corona treatment on the productivity and selectivity of separation of model emulsions on oil based Devonian deposits using polysulfonamide (PSA) membrane with molecular weight cut-off 100 kDa. The water-oil emulsion was processed with the use of a demulsifier brand "SNPC-4315м", which promotes the formation of larger emulsion droplets from 855 nm to 2029 nm. Carried out processing of the PSA membranes in the field of a unipolar corona discharge with variation of process parameters: voltage – from 5 to 35 kV exposure time of corona discharge – from 1 to 5 minutes. It is found, that modified membranes at the maximum voltage of 35 kV contributes to some performance degradation with the increase of the selectivity of the process. Determined that the greatest selectivity of separation of oil-water emulsion (96 %) was observed when using the PSA membrane treated by corona discharge at a voltage of 35 kV for 5 minutes.

Keywords: corona discharge, demulsifier, membrane, separation, water-oil emulsion


p. 41-45 /

Bondareva N.A.

Special composition, number and biomass of zooplankton in pokrovskoye (pokrovskie) lakes of Krasnodar

For the first time the full taxonomic composition of the zooplankton community in the Pokrovskiye lakes of the city of Krasnodar is presented, as well as its population and biomass. The Pokrovskiye lakes are two reservoirs separated by a dam: Upper Pokrovskoye Lake and Lower Pokrovskoye Lake. Both lakes are small, anthropogenic, have soil nutrition. Studies were conducted during the growing season from May to October of 2018. The collection and processing of hydrobiological material was carried out according to generally accepted methods. The species composition is represented by typical freshwater species characteristic of this climatic zone and has 43 taxa from representatives of Rotatoria, Copepoda, Cladocera and other groups. Biomass and abundance reached a maximum in spring and fell by autumn. The average value of number in lakes was 785 thousand ind / m3. Biomass was at the level of 4.91 g/m3.

Keywords: biomass, number, Pokrovskiye lakes, zooplankton


p. 57-62 /

Malahova L.V.
Egorov V.N.
Malahova T.V.

Organochlorine compounds in components of Sevastopol Bays, Cape Martyan Nature Reserve marine area and Yalta port ecosystems

The study of water, rapana, cystoseira and sediments contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Sevastopol bays, Cape Martyan Nature Reserve marine area and Yalta port was caried out and it was showed the relatively low levels in water and macrophytes. An increase in the concentration of HCH, DDT and its metabolites and PCBs in water in spring seasons at all studied areas was found. The level of long-term impact represented by PCBs and OCPs accumulation by mollusks and sediments. The PCBs and OCPs concentrations in hydrobionts and sediments from Cape Martyan marine area were negligible and could be assessed as background value for the Black Sea. Reconstruction of the organochlorine xenobiotic supply to Sevastopol bays sediments for the last 60 years was carried out.

Keywords: Cape Martyan Nature Reserve, DDT, hydrobionts, PCB, sediment, Sevastopol Bays, water


p. 97-106 /

Chaus B.Yu.

Indication of maintenance of hydrochemical pollyutant in the rivers of South Ural on an index of occurrence of mollusks from Prosobranchia subclass

The analysis of a possibility of use of mollusks from Prosobranchia subclass for biological indication of chemical pollution of waters is provided in article during environmental monitoring of the rivers of South Ural. From 2005 to 2016 dynamics of occurrence of 6 species of mollusks from Prosobranchia subclass in regions of 17 state water posts which are on the rivers of South Ural was studied. As a result of researches significant strong negative and positive correlative dependences between occurrence of a number of the studied species of gastropods with some hydrochemical parameters are revealed statistically. The linear regression models for the forecast of concentration of pollyutant in river waters of South Ural on occurrence of mollusks from Prosobranchia subclass are calculated.

Keywords: bioindication, Gastropoda mollusks, hydrochemical indexes, South Ural


p. 15-26 /

Grishanceva E.S.
Bychkova Ya.V.
Fedorova L.P.

Ecological and geochemical studies of small rivers flowing into the Ivankov reservoir (Volga river)

For the first time carried out a comprehensive ecological-geochemical study of small rivers Orsha, Soz, Babenka, Doibitsa, Inuha, Donhowka, flowing into the Ivankovskoe reservoir (Volga river), including a comprehensive study of the distribution of trace elements (Li, Be, B, Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Ga, Rb, Y, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, La, Ce, Pb, Bi, Th, U) in surface waters, bottom sediments and pore waters, and in higher aquatic plants (macrophytes). The assessment of anthropogenic pollution of bottom sediments of small rivers is given, formulas of geochemical associations of elements-pollutants are calculated and the total indicators of pollution of bottom sediments are calculated. The calculation of the flow of pollutants entering the Ivankovskoye reservoir with water of small tributaries is made. Separately investigated the estuarine zones of rivers in areas of confluence in the reservoir and the shallow water, overgrown by aquatic vegetation. The data on the content of trace elements in macrophytes of different ecological groups (hydrophytes, helophytes, hydrophytes), which form the basis of biocenoses of small rivers.

Keywords: bottom sediments, Ivankovskoye reservoir, macrophytes, small rivers, surface waters


p. 107-113 /

Krivina E.S.
Tarasova N.G.
Umanskaya M.V.
Gorbunov M.Yu.

Structure of phototrophic community in the chemocline zone of hypertrophic lakes

The vertical heterogeneity of the phototrophic plankton community in three suburban hypertrophic lakes of Togliatti with pronounced summer stratification of the water column is investigated in initial period of stratification. Mass development of phytoplankton in the epilimnion due to the high trophic status of lakes influence significantly on the structure of phytoplankton in the chemocline zone of all lakes. As result, formation of specific chemocline populations of phytoplankton is suppressed by low illumination of this zone, and also masked by sedimentation and/or by migration of bloom-forming epilimnetic algal species into chemocline. The main differences in the composition of phototrophic plankton between chemocline and epilimnion are due to the development of anoxigenic phototrophic bacteria populations in the chemocline zone. Vertical heterogeneity in the composition of phytoplankton inside each of the water bodies is very small compared to the differences between the lakes, which are explained, apparently, by contrasting abiotic characteristics of their ecosystems, as well as by the different stages of seasonal phytoplankton succession due to different rates of water heating.

Keywords: anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, chemocline, hypertrophic lakes, phytoplankton, stratification


p. 27-33 /

Velikanov H.L.
Naumov V.A.

Determination of hydrological characteristics of a small river

The article deals with the peculiarities of determining the hydrological characteristics of small rivers.
The refinement of the calculation scheme for assessing the individual hydrological characteristics of small rivers is an urgent task, since the reliability of forecasting the quality of water in the river depends significantly on the accuracy of determining the distribution of contaminants in it.
The purpose of this article is the improvement of the calculation method of the coefficient of roughness of the channel and the transverse coefficient of diffusion in the modeling of distribution of pollutants in small streams. As an example, the mamonovka river in the Kaliningrad region is considered.
It is noted that the river waters are contaminated with easily oxidized organic substances. In all samples taken in 2013-2015 years have seen the maximum permissible concentration for biochemical and chemical oxygen consumption.
Was observed exceeding the limit concentrations of total iron in 2013-2015 years, and in 1962-1964.
Initial data for calculations were the results of observations published in hydrological yearbooks. It is obtained that the closest (positive) stochastic relation in the roughness coefficient is observed with the average depth of the watercourse. It is established by the least squares method that the polynomial of the second degree should be chosen as the approximating function.
The dependence of the roughness coefficient of the watercourse channel on the average depth is obtained.

Keywords: a small river, coefficient of roughness of the channel, hydrological characteristics, transverse coefficient of diffusion


p. 114-119 /

Mazur O.E.

Accumulation of heavy metals and erythroid series of the blood system siberian roach (Rutilus rutilus) as indicators of anthropogenic water pollution from Lake Baical basin (Eastern Siberia)

Parameters of the peripheral link of the erythron of the Siberian roach in the summer period and the level of accumulation of heavy metals (HM) (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) in their liver from water objects with various anthropogenic loads (Lake Baikal basin) were determined for the first time. The content of TM in the liver of the roach examined showed a different accumulation, increasing in the series "Chivyrkuisky Bay → Cherkalov Bay → Selenga River." The intensification of compensatory processes in the structural and functional state of the peripheral link of erythropoiesis was noted in individuals of the roach of the Cherkalov Bay of Lake Baikal at a higher concentration of TM than in the background values (Chivyrkuisky Bay). On the contrary, at the roach of the Selenga River, with the greatest accumulation of TM in the liver, the state of the erythron was in the stage of adaptive rearrangement with signs of a pathological (destructive) nature. Correlation dependences on the content of TM in the liver of fish and the state of the erythroid elements of the blood have been revealed, indicating a destabilizing effect on erythropoiesis of both essential microelements (Zn, Cu) and highly toxic Pb.

Keywords: blood, erythrocytes, heavy metals, hemoglobin, Rutilus rutilus


p. 3-8 /

Levit R.L.
Popova T.A.

Geochemical indicators of ecological risk heavy metals contamination in the coastal sediments of the Eastern Gulf of Finland

To assess the ecological risk of heavy metals accumulation in sediments, the total concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in samples of coastal sediments of 11 stations Eastern Gulf of Finland were determined. Based on these data contamination factors, geoaccumulation indexes, pollution load indexes and potential ecological risk indexes were calculated and also mobile species concentrations of metals were measured, moreover the last three indicators being the most informative. These indicators allow to define of the most contaminated and hazardous parts of water body for biota. Lomonosov, Grafskaya bay, Petrodvorets, Primorsk, Sestroretsk and Sisto-Palkino stations were the most contaminated among the stations studied, but in general the degree of sediments heavy metals pollution had not reached a dangerous level. The contributions of individual elements to the overall sediments ecological risk increased in the following sequence: Zn (2%) < Pb (9%) ≤ Cu (10%) << Cd (79%), hence Cd is more dangerous than other studied elements due to its high toxicity and mobility. To improve the reliability of ecological risk assessment of heavy metals accumulation in sediments it is necessary to determine both the total content of heavy metals in sediments and the concentrations of mobile species. Approaches to ecological risk assessment proposed in this paper can be used in the carrying of the coastal zone environmental monitoring, the assessment of anthropogenic load on the aquatic environment and other activities that are necessary for the organization of effective systems of environmental management and sustainable development.

Keywords: ecological risk assessment, Gulf of Finland, heavy metals, pollution, sediments


p. 120-125 /

Trishina A.V.
Bereznyak E.A.
Simonova I.R.
Selyanskaya N.A.

ntibiotic resistance of water ecosystems enterobacteria

An analysis of the prevalence of antibacterial drug (ABD) resistant enterobacteria in hydroecosystems of Rostov-on-Don was carried out. 526 strains of enterobacteria were isolated from the city's reservoirs (146 in 2016, 380 in 2017). Enterobacteria species spectrum was various and included 43 species of microorganisms belonging to 22 genera. The Escherichia (47.0%), Enterobacter (17.5%), Klebsiella (8.7%), Citrobacter (7.8%) genera were dominant. The frequency of resistance to ABD varied depending on the microorganism genus. Analysis of isolated in 2016-2017 strains sensitivity/resistance to ABD showed that the proportion of enterobacteria resistant to ampicillin increased from 58.9% to 71.6%; nalidixic acid from 55.4% to 67.3%, co-trimoxazole from 83.6% to 93.7%. The number of strains resistant to doxycycline has doubled and those resistant to levomycetin and cefoperazone/sulbactam has increased 1.5 times. Enterobacteria strains resistant to cefepime were not detected in 2016. The following year, such strains were isolated from representatives of the genera Escherichia (1.9%), Citrobacter (4.3%), Enterobacter (23.5%). Carbapenem-resistant strains were isolated both in 2016 and 2017 among the representatives of Enterobacter genus. All the strains of Escherichia, Klebsiella, Citrobacter isolated in 2016 were carbapeneme-sensitive. In 2017, resistant to meropenem Escherichia strains (4.9%) and resistant to imipeneme strains of the genera Escherichia (13.2%), Klebsiella (13.8%), Citrobacter (26.0%) were found. The increasing anthropogenic impact on hydroecosystems and the steady growth of multiple antibiotic resistance of enterobacteria require constant monitoring and the adoption of preventive measures.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, enterobacteria, hydroecosystems


p. 9-14 /

Homenushko T.I.
Rusak S.N.
Kurilenko M.I.

Assessment of heavy metals content in surface waters of small water bodies in the North of Russia

The article presents the results of chemical analysis of surface waters of 13 water bodies of the North-Eastern Taimyr district of Krasnoyarsk region. The estimation of the content of HM in surface waters in the area of influence of oil and gas activity in comparison with the background concentrations of pollutants, as well as the maximum permissible concentrations. Geochemical studies were conducted in the period from June 2016 to August 2017. As a result of laboratory researches it is revealed that the content of some heavy metals (copper, nickel, iron) exceeds the maximum permissible concentrations of the substances established for the waters used for the fishery purposes. In most cases a high content of substances corresponds to the background level values. The high content of copper and nickel in comparison with initial pollution of surface waters in some water objects is revealed. The causes of technogenic pollution are identified, and recommendations for further environmental measures are given.

Keywords: air, background contaminant concentrations, heavy metals, soil, surface water, the Taimyr district of the Krasnoyarsk region


p. 126-137 /

Reshetnyak O.S.
Kondakova M.Yu.
Danilenko A.O.
Kosmenko L.S.
Minina L.I.

Spatial-temporal variability of the water pollution degree and the river ecosystem state of various latitude zones of Siberia

The study was carried out on the basis of the long-term hydrochemical information of the Rosgidromet state observation system (SOS) on the quality of surface waters. It was given the estimation of the long-term variability of the water pollution degree and the state of about eighty water bodies in different latitudinal zones of Western, Central and Northeast Siberia.
The largest number of water bodies characterized by the degree of water contamination passing from «extremely dirty» to «dirty» is mainly located in Western Siberia. The largest number of water bodies characterized by the degree of water contamination passing from «very polluted», «polluted» to «slightly polluted» is mainly located in Central Siberia. The share of river ecosystems with «dirty» and «very dirty» state of aquatic environment is approximately uniform and ranges from 30 to 47,5%.
There is a tendency to improve water quality in recent years for almost the majority of the rivers studied in all natural areas of Siberia. Most river ecosystems or their sites in Siberia are in a state of transition from the «natural» and (or) «equilibrium» to the «crisis».

Keywords: latitudinal zonality, river ecosystem state, river ecosystems, territory of Siberia, water pollution degree


p. 138-141 /

Zhamskaya N.N.
Byankina L.S.
Apanasenko O.A.
Katkova S.A.
Ivanov Yu.V.

INVESTIGATION OF ADSORPTION PROPERTIES OF VERMICULITE- ASSOCIATED COMPOSITES IN RELATION TO PHENOL

Adsorption properties of the modified chemical and thermal treatment of vermiculite by the degree of extraction of phenol from the solution were studied: I composite vermiculite + 12% HCl + cellulose; II composite - vermiculite + 12% HCl + cellulose (calcined at 600-700 ° C); III composite - vermiculite + 12% HCl + cellulose + 15% NH3 ∙ H2O; IV composite - vermiculite + 12% HCl + cellulose + 15% NH3 ∙ H2O + (calcined at 600-700 ° C). It has been discovered that composites I and III are ineffective in the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions. Sorbents II and IV, calcined at high temperature, have the best sorption properties as related to phenol.

Keywords: adsorption, composite, phenol, vermiculite, waste water


p. 142-142 /

Sustavov A.A.

PROGRAM OF CALCULATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF QUANTITATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMMUNITY OF FRESHWATER ZOOPLANKTON

The program is a tool for automating the calculation of quantitative development indicators of freshwater zooplankton communities and is intended for solving educational and scientific problems by practicing hydrobiologists. The program implements the calculation of environmentally significant parameters of the development of zooplankton communities, namely, its density, biomass and secondary production. From the position of quantitative hydroecology, the program provides identification of the structural diversity of communities, the level of dominance, and the measure of the leveling of the species. The possibility of storing and retrospective analysis of the results of calculations is provided, which makes the use of the program especially useful when conducting hydrobiological monitoring of continental reservoirs.


p. 143-147 /

Halikov I.S.
Baranov V.I.

The use of a fluorometric detector in liquid chromatography to control phenol in bottom sediments of the Baikal lake

Optimized are the conditions of detection phenol with the use of a fluorometric detector and a high-performance liquid chromatography. To extract phenol from bottom sediments a water-acetonitrile mixture (with a volumetric content of acetonitrile of 25%) is proposed for maximal extraction (90-100%) without destruction of the matrix. The limit detection (the ratio signal/noise = 3) in the samples of bottom sediments made about 1 ng/g. An average phenol content of the background section of the Lake Baikal southern part (45,0 ng/g, n=5) was comparable with its level in the regions of possible contamination sources – proving grounds of the Baikal pulp and paper plant, avandelta of the Selenga river (31,3 ng/g, n=11) and the Northern Baikal in the region of the Baikal-Amur highway (34,5 ng/g, n=17). Minimal concentrations were determined in sand sediments. No correlation dependencies of organic carbon and polar phenol were found.

Keywords: Baikal, bottom sediments, fluorometric detector, HPLC, phenol