scientific journal
  • ISSN 2072-8158
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  • Урал-Пресс: 012688

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology» № 10-12 (117) за October 2018 г.</H3>

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology»

№ 10-12 (117) за October 2018 г.

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p. 30-35 /

Noskova T.V.
Lejtes E.A.
Labuzova O.M.

The content of oil in samples of surface water and bottom sediments of the rivers Ob and Barnaulka

The quality of surface water near the cities does not always meet standards limits for natural water. The oil is most priority of pollutant of surface water. To assess the present ecological state and level of anthropogenic load on the surface water was determined by fluorimetric method the concentration of oil in the snow disposal sites, urban storm water, surface water and bottom sediments rivers Ob and Barnaulka. The concentration of oil was lower than the maximum permissible concentrations for fishery water bodies (MPC) in the samples of surface water river Ob, for the study period (2011-2016). The concentration of oil was higher than the MPC more than 9 times in samples of water in the mouth of the river Barnaulka. In July 2015, the concentration of oil was higher than the MPC in the mouth of the river Barnaulka more than 10 times as a result of the accident, what was to reason accumulation of oil in the bottom sediments. On average the concentration of oil is 50 times in the bottom sediments of the river Ob than in the river Barnaulka and is indicates a significant pollution of the last. Dozens of tons of oil are annually supplied to water bodies from the urban territory with surface runoff, what does not significant impact on the pollution of the full-flowing river Ob, but does a negative impact on the ecological state of small urban rivers (river Barnaulka). This is requires the adoption of effective surface water protection measures.

Keywords: bottom sediments, oil, pollution, snow disposal sites, surface water

p. 36-42 /

Ponomareva Yu.A.
Prokopkin I.G.

The influence of Krasnoyarsk hydropower station flow rate on the temperature regime and the amount of phytoplankton downstream of the dam

Using multiyear measurements, we investigated the influence of high flow rates at Krasnoyarsk hydropower station (Krasnoyarsk HPS) on the phytoplankton population of Yenisei River downstream of the dam. We propose the hypothesis that flow rate variations are changing water temperature, which is influencing on phytoplankton dynamics. This hypothesis is verified by measurements of 2008-2016 years. The peaks of number and biomass of phytoplankton were recorded in June in all years in question due to the flow of diatoms from the upstream of the dam. Found relationships could be used for preparation of prognosis of the phytoplankton dynamics downstream of the dam.

Keywords: dam flow rate, flow rate of HPS, phytoplankton, the Yenisei River, water temperature

p. 51-56 /

Soloveva Yu.V.
Krasnova T.A.
Polyakova N.P.

Technology of wastewater treatment from dimethylamine by the spent carbon sorbent

The proposed method of disposal of the active charcoal, the extract at the stage of purification of wastewater from the production of caprolactam (OAU). Comparative adsorption extraction of dimethylamine from aqueous solutions using industrial active coals of AG-5, ASKD-515 grades (JSC Sorbent, Perm), which differ in raw materials and the method of obtaining OAU samples, was carried out. Kinetic and dynamic characteristics of dimethylamine adsorption process by OAU samples were determined. Experimental researches of process of extraction of DMF in a continuous mode with the use of coal OAU. Mathematical modelling optimization of adsorption columns and the resulting dynamic characteristics of the process of adsorption of dimethylamine samples of OAU. On the basis of complex research of process of adsorption of dimethylamine and theoretical calculations of parameters and operating mode of the adsorption filter the technology of utilization of the fulfilled sorbent for adsorption purification of sewage from an organic component allowing to increase ecological safety and resource saving at the expense of prevention of discharge of sewage is developed.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, caprolactam, dimethylamine

p. 57-63 /

Kapustina L.L.
Mitrukova G.G.

Ecologo-microbiological characteristics of reservoir Sestroretsky Razliv according to the results of long-term researches

The location of Sestroretsky Razliv within the recreation zone of St Petersburg implies continuous anthropogenic impact from the urbanized landscape and thus requires systematic ecological studies (monitoring) of the storage reservoir. The work aims to estimate the present ecological state of the Sestroretsky Razliv based on sanitary-microbiological parameters, to reveal seasonal and annual variations of these parameters as well as tendencies of the variations from 80s years of the past century. The microbiological parameters (numbers of saprophytes and fecal coliforms) were evaluated by standard methods. Most of the obtained results indicate that most ecologically disturbed were mouth areas of the main tributaries, i.e. Sestra and Chernaya rivers. The water bodies of the rest part of the reservoir were generally acceptable for any usage category, including the recreation. The ecological state of the reservoir is substantially affected by tributaries contaminated winh total and thermotolerant coliforms exceeding the normative levels during all the periods of observations. Greatest concern is the area near Chernaya river mouth, in which the total coliforms and especially thermotolerant coliforms exceed normative limits in 83% of the probes implying the fresh fecal contamination. The Salmonella of the D enteritides group, the causative agents of gastroenteritis (salmonellosis), were found out within the mouth area of the Sestra river in May 2016. The most environmentally sound was the south part of the Sestroretsky Razliv reservoir, at maximum distance from the tributaries. Compared with the previous data (on 1980-81 and 2002 yy), our data indicated considerable increase in the number of saprophytic bacteria within the mouth area of the Chernaya river, which implies constantly increasing anthropogenic impact on this water flow.

Keywords: fecal coliforms, saprophytes, Sestroretsky Razliv storage reservoir, thermotolerant fecal coliforms

p. 64-73 /

Tokinova R.P.
Lyubin P.A.
Abramova K.I.
Shagidullin R.R.
Berdnik S.V.

Hydrobiocenoses of the Kuybyshevsk Reservoir shallow water near Kazan in conditions of anthropogenic transformation of aquatic landscapes

From 1 to 10 June 2015, an investigation was carried out of the composition and structure of the hydrobiological communities (phytoplankton, zooplankton and macrozoobenthos) in the upper reaches of the Kuibyshev Reservoir near the city of Kazan (Republic of Tatarstan), in the shallow-water zone. Hydrotechnical transformations of the investigated water area as a result of dredging and aggradation of new lands in 2011-2014 caused changes in the hydrological and hydrothermal regimes. Low-current zones formed within the dismembered water area are characterized by an increase in the trophic status and abundant development of phytoplankton, the appearance of which is determined by the predominant development of the blue-green algae of the genus Anabaena. In the zooplankton and macrozoobenthos of the transformed plots, the species diversity is declining. These transformations can bear the risk of reducing the fishery and recreational value of this zone of the reservoir.

Keywords: Kuybyshev reservoir, macrozoobenthos, phytoplankton, shallow water, zooplankton

p. 74-83 /

Umanskaya M.V.
Bykova S.V.
Gorbunov M.Yu.

Stratification and vertical distribution of ciliates and phototrophic bacteria in boreal ferruginous lake

In the context of the research project devoted to the studies of the vertical heterogeneity of microbial communities in stratified water bodies of the Middle Volga region, we described the peculiarities of the chemical composition and vertical distribution of phototrophic organisms and ciliates in karst ferruginous lake Zelenoe (Vuver-Er, Green Lake) near the Pomary settlement, Rep. Mari El. Anoxic hypolimnionon of the lake contains high iron concentration and enhanced mineralization that may indicate meromictic state. An unusual feature of the lake is the coexistence of filamentous anoxygenic phototroph Cloronema giganteum and phototrophic consortia with significant populations of filamentous cyanobacteria Planktothrix rubescens. The presence of planktonic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (Chloronema), dominance of phototrophic consortia over unicellular and colonial Chlorobiaceae, as well as the penetration of certain oxygenic phototrophs (cyanobacteria or eukaryotic algae) deep into anaerobic layers are apparently common features of phototrophic communities of temperate water bodies with ferruginous (and manganous) hypolimnion. Special feature of ciliate community of the lake is mass development of epibiotic species and the penetration of some microaerophilic ciliates, including mixotrophic, deep into the hypolimnion, in contrast to the euxinic lakes. The findings expand the information on the composition of chemocline communities of temperate lakes with the ferruginous hypolimnion.

Keywords: anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, boreal ferruginous lakes, chemocline, ciliates, cyanobacteria, stratification

p. 84-90 /

Soloveva O.V.
Burdiyan N.V.

Self-purification processes on the hydraulic engineering structure with abundant mytilidae fouling

The macrozoobenthos of hydraulic structures presents an additional substrate for the development of periphyton microorganisms which are actively involved in the processes of self-purification of the coastal port areas. To assess the sanitary-biological role of the periphyton (on example of the Artillery bay, Sevastopol, the Black Sea) formed on the surface of the mollusks Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. (Lam., 1819) and Mytilaster lineatus Gmel. (Gmel., 1791) shells, without calculating the substrate square necessary for the development of biofouling is impossible. The purpose of this work is to determine the intensity of the self-purification flux from petroleum hydrocarbons by producing oil-oxidizing bacteria, taking into account the evaluation of the mytilidae morphometric characteristics and the shells square, which form an additional surface for the development of microperiphyton – the leading part of the organic matter in the coastal water area transformation. Sampling and subsequent processing of the material was carried out on the basis of standard methods of hydrobiology and general microbiology. It was ascertainment that in the conditions of Artillery bay on the underwater part of the concrete pier is formed abundant mytilidae fouling. The number of mussels was 6263 ind.∙m-2, mylilasters – 9831 ind.∙m-2. Due to the presence in the fouling of mytilidae mollusks on the 1 m2 of the embankment surface, 30.28 m2 of substrate are additionally formed to inhabit a microperiphyton community. The quantitative mytilidae mollusks surfice bacterioperiphyton indicators of the studied water area are characteristic for an areas subjected to a strong anthropogenic load. Bacterial abundance in one gram of periphyton (cel.∙g-1) was: heterotrophic bacteria – 7.5∙105, oil-oxidizing bacteria – 9.5∙104, thionic bacteria – 2.0∙104, sulfate-reducing bacteria – 2.5∙102, denitrifying bacteria – 2.5∙104. The intensity of the petroleum hydrocarbons fluxes passing through the oil-oxidizing microbiota of mytilidae fouling per 1 m2 of the concrete pier (taking into account the area of the additionally formed substrate) was 9.1 mg∙m-2∙day-1. Assessment of the sanitary-biological role of the periphyton formed on the surface of the Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mytilaster lineatus shells, inhabiting the surface of anthropogenic substrate in the port water area showed a high intensity of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by microperiphyton organisms.

Keywords: anthropogenic substrate, bacteriaperyphiton, mussels, mytilasters, self-poorification, the Black Sea

p. 99-108 /

Voinceva I.I.
Nizhnik T.Yu.
Strikalenko T.V.
Baranova A.I.

Anticorrosive properties of disinfectant reagents based on polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride

It is shown that polymer reagent polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) with complex non-oxidative action, which is applied as a disinfectant reagent for water treatment processes, including with drinking water, is an inhibitor of biocorrosion of metal equipment, prevents formation of a biofilm, eliminates accumulated components of biofouling and corrosion in old pipelines. In hard water and in water with low pH (≤ 7), PHMG is also an inhibitor of electrochemical corrosion of steel.

Keywords: polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride, protection of equipment and pipelines from biocorrosion and biofouling

p. 109-118 /

Kuchmenova I.I.
Frolova N.L.
Gazaev H.-M.M.
Kondrateva N.V.
Atabieva F.A.

Synthesis of the results of long-term studies on the main indicators of the salt composition of river water in the Kabardino-Balkarian highland reserve

The article analyzes the results of many years of research on the main indicators of water quality (mineralization, general rigidity, electrical conductivity) of the rivers of the high-mountain zone of the basins of the river CherekBezengiysky, the river CherekBalkarsky and the Chegem river. According to the data of many years of research, maps of the mineralization and general hardness of the rivers and their tributaries during the winter meadow and summer flood have been compiled. Water mineralization maps characterize the conditions of interaction of surface and groundwater within the landscape-hydrological complexes of the highlands. The maps characterize the natural, natural hydrochemical background of water bodies located on the territory of the Kabardino-Balkarian high mountain state natural reserve
The identified types of water supply with the values of mineralization and general rigidity can be used as a basis for calculating the maximum permissible discharges of pollutants, when developing regional or basin water quality indicators.

Keywords: general rigidity, high-altitude catchment area, mineralization, monitoring, salt water composition

p. 3-10 /

Arefeva O.D.
Gruschakova N.V.
Grinenko E.F.

Quality assessment of water bodies in industrial areas of abandoned coal minе of Partizansk Coal Basin (PrimorskyKrai)

Currently the negative environmental impact of the coal industry on the environment. For several pollutants the coal mining industry exceeds the other and affects practically all elements of the biosphere, in particular water basins. A study in 2015-2017 showed that technogenic water of Partizansk Coal Basin, sampled in industrial areas of the abandoned coal mines, are a source of environmental pollution. The studied technogenic water is highly mineralized (up to 3053 mg/l), with hardness of 9.8 mg-eq./l and iron concentration from 0.7 MPC to 29.3 MPC for drinking-water. A strong relationship between the permanganate demand of technogenic water and noncentralized water supply sources (r=0.82) was found. There is a relationship between the surface and technogenic water only between the content of sulfate ions (r=0.99). Chemical environmental assessment on the content of metal cations showed that the concentration of iron, zinc, lithium and manganese in industrial water exceeded the standards. The tendency of contamination of the cations of zinc (r=0.90), iron (r=0.50) and strontium (r=0.85) surface water bodies of the city of Partizansk was found.

Keywords: abandoned coal mines, cations of metals, changes in the environment, chemical composition, pollution, technogenic water

p. 119-125 /

Harlyamov D.A.
Denisova T.R.
Mavrin G.V.
Shajhiev I.G,

Physico-chemical and sorption properties of composite materials based on waste of wood and synthetic magnetite

Physicochemical and sorption properties of composite materials based on wood fibre waste (WFW) produced by MDF boards and synthetic magnetite (Fe3O4) were investigated. The process of obtaining composites consisted in deposition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of wood fibers with ammonia water from a solution containing a mixture of chlorides of two - and trivalent iron. As a result, two types of sorption materials (SM) with magnetic properties have obtained: CS – composite SM obtained without the imposition of ultrasound (US) and CSus – composite SM obtained with US vibrations. Characteristics of samples of initial and modified materials are defined. It was established that the effect of US vibrations on Fe3O4 deposition by 18.2% increases the specific surface area compared to the material obtained without the imposition of US. The possibility of cleaning the water surface from oil of carbon deposits obtained composite SM was studied. In static conditions the values of maximum oil sorption capacity was determined, which accounted for the raw material of 10.08 g/g, magnetic composites of the CS and CSus – of 10.56 g/g and of 11.94 g/g, respectively. The decrease of the degree of water uptake after modification due to the influence of oil-wetting agent was observed. The sorption equilibrium for both the source and for the resulting composites can be obtained within 30-40 min was determined. The experiments on the removal of oil pollution from the water surface was conducted. The total value of oil sorption capacity and water uptake for sample CS amounted to 7.14 g/g, for CSus - 7.55 g/g.

Keywords: adsorption, composite, magnetite, oil, waste wood fiber

p. 17-22 /

Hochaeva S.S.

The influence of the dynamics of hydrochemical mode on ihtiofauna in the Chograian water reservoir and its change under anthropogenic impact

The article investigates the current conditions and provides monitors the hydrochemical regime of the water body under consideration, including the impact of mineralization dynamics upon the reproduction of the ichthyofauna in the Chogray Reservoir throughout different years. The research used stationary, expeditionary, field, and hydrogeological methods accompanied by laboratory analyses of Kalmykia’s surface water samples. The chemical and mineralization analyses have been performed by the Kalmytskaya Agrochemical Service Station in strict compliance with the standards established.
The study is also based on dissective and comparative methods of analysis. The procedures revealed that the operational dynamics of the Chogray Reservoir does influence reproduction rates of valuable fish species. The comparative analysis shows the amount of fish reached its peak at the initial stage of the reservoir’s existence with lowest mineralization reported, and in 1996 – 1998 when the mineralization was at maximum level, the amount of Hypophthalmichthys, Abramis brama and Cyprinus carpio almost halved. The paper concludes that the anthropogenic climate and its recent changes (extremely high summer temperatures) has resulted in the Chogray Reservoir has lost its function as a drinking water source. It also confirms that in the context of the anthropogenic climate factors, changes in the hydrochemical regime have a dramatic impact on reproduction rates of fish species in the water body. Thus, the anthropogenic climate has virtually deprived the reservoir of its status as a drinking water source

Keywords: mineralization, quality of water, salinization, water body, water reservoir

p. 126-132 /

Sverguzova S.V.
Sapronova Zh.A.
Shajhiev I.G,
Valiev R.R.

Determination of mineralogical composition and sorption characteristics for oil products of wastes of gabbro-diabase processing of the Abzakovo deposit

The physical and chemical properties of the gabbro-diabase of the Abzakovo deposit (the Republic of Bashkortostan) were studied. For the study took samples of the waste and the processing of gabbro-diabase - shards, fragments, chips, dust, etc.By means of X-ray phase analysis, its mineral, oxide and elemental compositions are established. The results showed that the greatest amount of gabbro-diabase included oxides: SiO 2 (more than 50% by weight); Al 2 O 3 (13.78% by weight); MgO (13.76% by weight); Fe2O3 (10.03% by weight); CaO (7.28% by weight). To clarify the chemical composition of the gabbro-diabase sample, energy dispersive studies were performed using a scanning electron microscope of the brand «Quanta200-3 D» with an energy-dispersive distribution of elements. The relative uniformity of the composition of the gabbro-diabase sample and the absence of toxic and radioactive elements in it are established. Investigation of the microstructure of the particle surface with diabase, gabbro SEM brand «TESCAN MIRA 3 LMU» (Poland) made it possible to reveal on the particle surface chips, irregularities, roughness and other defects of the surface structure, indicating its energy heterogeneity. The values of the maximum oil and oil capacity relative to the Devonian and Carboniferous sediments are determined, as well as to oils - industrial grades I-20A and I-40A and motor mark 5W-40, which do not exceed 045 g/g.

Keywords: composition, gabbro-diabase, oil products, sorption material

p. 23-29 /

Skugoreva S.G.
Fokina A.I.
Domracheva L.I.
Domracheev I.A.

Study of the chemical composition and content of microorganisms in spring water

A chemical and microbiological analysis of water samples from four springs and spring reservoirs in the city of Kirov (near Diorama, Trifonov Monastery, in the Zasora Gully, in the park of the 60th anniversary of the USSR) was conducted in October 2016, January, March and June 2017. In spring water samples the concentration of potassium, magnesium, calcium, chloride, nitrate and sulfate ions in October and June was higher than in January and March, which may be due to climatic factors, in particular, the amount of precipitation.
It is established that the most stable ionic composition is in the water of the source near the Tri-fonov Monastery, the least one – in the source near Diorama. The content of most ions, in the near-source water bodies is similar to springs.
In most of the water samples from springs the excess of the content of nitrate ions, lead (II) ions and the total hardness over standard was noted, which makes it possible to consider water as contaminated and dangerous for consumption without preliminary cleaning. The contamination of groundwater and adjacent environment may be the reason of water pollution.
Seasonal changes are noted in the content of microorganisms (MO) in spring water. The maxi-mum MO values in the sources were revealed in June 2017, the minimum values – in January 2017. The reason may be different inorganic ion content and water temperature. The number of MO in the near-source reservoirs is higher than in the springs, which is due to microbial pollution from the air, as well as the contact of spring water with the facing of reservoirs.

Keywords: heavy metals, ionic composition, number of microorganisms, pollution, spring, spring reservoir

p. 133-138 /

Ibadova S.Ya.
Mamedova R.I.

Devices for control of pollutions in environment

Application of the ion-selective electrodes (ISE) as verification methods are the most advanced out of the modern types of analysis. These methods allow quickly and accurately to determine the low concentration of metals ions and surfactants. The purpose of this research was dual. I.e. creation of ion-selective electrodes with high sensitivity and selectivity and the usage of the created ISE for analysis of natural industry items. Targeted synthetic construction of potassium of bis-crown-ether was conducted. Since the conversion of metals set with the crown-ether into the organic phase during extraction is always accompanied with retrieving of stoichiometric quantity of anions from water phase , the spectrophotometric verification of water and organic phase of light absorption before and after extraction allows judging the relative chelating capacity of extract ants. Analysis of the calculated outcome of constant extraction revealed that the crown-ether (III) is the best extractant which is selective and effective in relation to potassium ions.

Keywords: crown-ether, ion selective electrode, membrane, strata water

p. 43-50 /

Markina Zh.V.
Ajzdajcher N.A.

Copper influence on different taxonomic groups marine microalgae cultures estimation with flow cytometry

Copper influence in concentration 50, 100, 150 and 200 mkg/liter on different taxonomic groups microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri, Tisochrysis lutea and Plagioselmis prolonga were conducted with flow cytometry. C. muelleri was the most resistant alga and P. prolonga is most sensitive to copper (died at 100 mkg/l of methal). Reactive oxygen species content were more significantly responded to copper intoxication among all the parameters (cells number, forward and side scattering, chlorophyll a fluorescence, reactive oxygen species content).

Keywords: copper, flow cytometry, microalgae

p. 146-150 /

Halikov I.S.
Baranov V.I.

Determination of phenol with the use of dynamic sorption and the method of high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection

Determination of phenol in water bodies is an urgent task of analytic chemistry due to a low value of a limited allowable concentration (1000 ng/l) and its complexity under concentrating connected with its high hydrophylity.
Optimization of flow velocity, phase composition and detection at phenol determination made by the method of reverse-phase highly performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with the use of a fluorometric detector (Eex (275 nm)/ Eem(300 nm)) has been carried out.
To effectively extract phenol from water the solid-phase extraction (SPE) of phenol on a sorbent with a hypercrosslinked polystyrene was used.
The extent of phenol extraction was about 95-100% at the use of 50% acetonitrile at different phenol concentrations and types of water. Under optimized conditions the detection limit was 20 ng/l, and the standard relative deviation was less than 10%.
The results obtained show a reasonable applicability of the SPE and the fluorometric detector in the HPLC method for the determination of phenol low levels in water without derivatives and a long-time sample preparation.

Keywords: fluorometric detector, HPLC, phenol, solid-phase extraction

p. 91-98 /

Titova S.V.
Menshikova E.A.
Kurbatova E.M.

Some aspects of ecology of cholera vibrios

The review is devoted to environmental factors affecting the persistence of cholera vibrios in surface water bodies of different latitudes. A characteristic feature of the causative agent of cholera is the constant change of habitat: alternation of stay in the infected macroorganism (in the small intestine) with subsequent existence in natural ecosystems. Getting into the environment, the cholera vibrio is exposed to a huge number of environmental factors, among which are isolated physical, chemical and biological. The concentration of hydrogen ions, salinity (salinity) play an important role in the vital activity of Vibrio cholerae. But the greatest influence from abiotic factors on the survival of pathogenic bacteria in the environment is exerted by temperature. Despite the wide spread of this microorganism all over the world, only in some regions, mainly in the tropics and subtropics, cholera endemicity is maintained. But even in cholera endemic areas, the cases are seasonal, when a high V. cholerae abundance is observed during periods of water temperature increase and mass development of zooplankton. The review also discusses the influence of biotic factors on the cholera vibrio. In the temperate climate belts, as well as in cholera endemic areas, representatives of zooplankton and phytoplankton are one of the ecological niches for cholera vibrios, including in the winter, and can serve as factors of persistence of these microorganisms in the external environment, forming possible secondary foci with the introduction of the pathogen.

Keywords: environmental factors, persistence factors, V. cholerae

p. 151-156 /

Pudova N.E.
Kakurkin N.P.
Malashenko A.A.
Byvalcev E.A.
Poluosmak E.A.

Comparison of laboratory methods for evaluation the effectiveness of antiscalants to prevent precipitation of calcium carbonate

It is shown that three laboratory methods: photometric, turbidimetric and visual imaging with the use of an optical microscope can be applied for fixing the amount of calcium carbonate scale as well us evaluating the effectiveness of antiscalants. Statistical processing of the received data is have been carried out.It has been found that the best results are obtained by using a turbidimetric technique characterized by the smallest error. It is shown that the method with the use of an optical microscope makes it possible to obtain the most stable results in time.
The influence of four antiscalants: based on oxyethylidenediphosphonic acid, polyacrylate, and mixtures of phosphonates and polymer components have been studied. According to the data obtained, a method for determining the percent inhibition of the precipitation of calcium carbonate is proposed. It is shown that all used antiscalants significantly reduce or completely prevent the precipitation of this impurity.

Keywords: inhibitors of scale, Рrecipitation of calcium carbonate

p. 139-145 /

Fedoseeva E.V.
Pacaeva S.V.
Terehova V.A.
Ivanova A.E.
Karpov V.A.

Fluorescence spectroscopy of endo-and exometabolites of some microscopic fungi species in water

The spectral studies of cultural liquid and aqueous suspension of fungal spores of six strains of microscopic filamentous fungi with various colors (typical inhabitants of aquatic and terrestrial habitats, potential pathogens and agents of bio-corrosion materials) were carried out for the detection of fluorescent characteristics of fungal metabolites. All studied strains, Trichoderma harzianum, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Aspergillus ustus, A. terreus, and Fusarium solani were divided into three groups depending on the fluorescence patterns under the excitation at 280, 310, and 370 nm. The first group consisted of A. alternata, C. cladosporioides and A. terreus, whose exometabolites were represented by melanins and melanin-like compounds similar to humic substances by their spectral characteristics. The luminescence of NAD(P)H prevailed in the fluorescence patterns of the second group that was represented by samples of T. harzianum and F. solani. The maximum emission of sample A. ustus that was related to the third type was located in the long wavelength region (500-520 nm), which is typical for flavin compounds. Instrumental fluorescent methods of analysis are effective for detection of specific fungal structures and associated endo - or exometabolites in the aquatic environment.

Keywords: aquatic environments, biofilms, filamentous fungi, fluorescence, melanins, NAD(P)H

p. 157 /

R.A. Mihajlov


The program is intended for store and record information about freshwater mollusks of the Samara region. This program consisting information about the species richness of mollusks their of quantitative indicators and structural characteristics in the different types of water bodies. It has the form of relational tables, which allows to use it to monitor different aquatic ecosystems and predict their degree of pollution. The base is intended for students and postgraduates of biological direction, teachers, specialists, zoologists, hydrobiologists, ecologists and anyone interested in the study of freshwater mollusks

p. 11-16 /

Zhinzhakova L.Z.
Vorobeva T.I.
Cherednik E.A.

The study of the chemical composition of the waters of the Baksan river and runoff drainage creek

The article presents the data of long-term observations of the chemical composition of the waters of the river Baksan from the background line to the estuary zone. According to the results of the study, tables of the content of the main trace elements (Mo, Pb, Mn, Zn, Cr, Ni, V, Ag), the main ions (HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-, Ca2+, Na+, K+), biogenic compounds (NO2-, NO3-, NH4+) in the waters of the upper and lower reaches of the river. Baksan, as well as the composition of the contaminated drainage stream during the summer flood. The pH value and mineralization are presented.
The waters of the drainage stream are alkaline, contain high concentrations of trace elements and macro components, and the mineralization is many times higher than the content of dissolved salts before and after the second drainage stream in the waters of the Baksan river. The main polluting parameters in the water of the drainage stream, which carries its drains from the territory of the "tailing dump" to the river bed of the Baksan River, are identified.
The danger of liquid effluents of the plant is obvious, and this can lead in the future to a significant deterioration of the ecological situation not only for the waters of the Baksan River, which is one of the important water arteries of the republic, but also in the region as a whole.

Keywords: concentration, hydrochemistry, macro-components, microelements, river water

p. 158-163 /

Selezneva A.V.

River flow of mineral phosphorus in the Saratov reservoir

The main reason for the deterioration of water quality in the Saratov reservoir is the massive development of algae. The development of algae caused by the intake reservoir of the mineral phosphorus from point and diffuse sources of pollution. The purpose of the study is the development and testing of a reliable and speedy method of estimation of diffuse pollution of large reservoirs of the Volga River.
The conducted studies make it possible to propose a new integral method for estimating the diffuse pollution of a large reservoir. The method is based on the organization and management of hydrological and hydrochemical observations on the main tributaries of the 1st order in the basin of a large reservoir. The integral method allowed to reliably and quickly determine the diffuse contamination by the phosphorus of the Saratov reservoir.
Diffuse contamination of the Saratov reservoir with phosphorus averages 329 tons per year. This value is 43% of total phosphorus entering the Saratov reservoir with a river runoff from the private catchment area. The bulk of the pollution comes from the catchment area of the river. Samara is 217 tons / year (66%). The remaining 34% (122 t/year) account for the catchment areas of the Syzran rivers – 41,3 t/year (12,6%), Juice – 40,3 t/year (12,3%), Chapaevka – 18,7 t/year (5,7%), Small Irgiz – 25,4 t/year (2,1%) and Chagra – 4,5 t/year (1,4%).
The integral method is recommended to be used for other large reservoirs of the Volga-Kama cascade after its approbation in various natural and climatic conditions. This method should be used to monitor the effectiveness of ongoing water protection measures in the basins of large reservoirs within the framework of the implementation of the priority project "Preservation and Prevention of Diffuse Pollution of the Volga" until 2025.

Keywords: assessment of phosphorus, diffuse pollution, monitoring