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Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology» № 7-9 (116) за September 2018 г.</H3>

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology»

№ 7-9 (116) за September 2018 г.

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p. 103-109 /

Rogozin A.G.

Zooplankton species as indicators of saprobity in Southern Urals reservoirs

The purpose of this work is the creation of Zooplankton Species List which are the indicators of saprobity in the Urals, and the use of assessment results by the example of the Southern Urals lakes. Hydrochemical and hydrophysical data are used to identify saprobity zones. The individu-al saprobic index (s) and the indicative weight of species (J) are based on Tsimdin's method by distribution of average density and occurrence in different saprobity zones.
The result of this study is the list of 94 zooplanktonic bioindicators (Rotifera, Cladocera, Cope-poda) widely distributed in Urals reservoirs. Individual saprobic indexes and the indicative weights of species have been specified, new common species and forms have been added to the indicators. The Zooplankton Indicator Species List is recommended to be used for the saprobio-logical analysis in the Urals reservoirs instead of the traditionally used ones, as it gives more ob-jective results and raises the quality of the water pollution assessment.

Keywords: bioindication, saprobity, Urals, zooplankton

p. 110-118 /

Reshetnyak O.S.

The anthropogenic load and variability of ecosystems conditions in various sites of the Oka river

The assessment of anthropogenic load and aquatic ecosystem state variability along the Oka River was carry out on the basis of long-term hydrological and hydrochemical regime information. The anthropogenic load on the chemical inflow varies considerably from "moderate" to "high" in terms of the ammonium nitrogen flow; from "small" or "moderate" in most of the studied sections of the river to a transition to "critical" for the flow of readily oxidizable organic substances; from "small" to transition to "moderate" in terms of the oil products flow. The most tense situation is observed in the area of the Kashira city, where the anthropogenic load level is greatest for all components. It is associated with high population density and high technogenic load on water bodies in this part of the river.
The variability of the river ecosystems state was assessed. It is shown that, in general, the river ecosystems state is estimated as "equilibrium" or transitional from "equilibrium" to "crisis" for most of the studied sections of the river. There is the tendency of deterioration in the state ecosystem by content of organic matter near the Serpukhov, Kashira, Kolomna and Kasimov cities.

Keywords: anthropogenic load, aquatic ecosystem state, influx of chemicals, Oka River

p. 144-151 /

Sizykh M.R.
Batoeva A.A.
Aseev D.G.


p. 119-126 /

Kuchko Ya.A.
Ilmast N.V.
Kuchko T.Yu.

Hydrobiocenoses of lake Pandazero (Kivach reserve, Karelia)

Inventory of the current state of the communities of phyto-, zooplankton and zoobenthos of Lake Pandozero, which is located at the territory of the Kivach Reserve, was conducted for the first time. Species diversity, the ratio of the main taxonomic groups, the structure of the dominant species of hydrobionts, their abundance and biomass in the littoral and pelagic zones of the lake have been studied. The results of the research showed that by the level of quantitative development of phytoplankton (summer, 2017) the waters of Lake Pandozero can be attributed to the second class of quality ("clean"), category 2b ("completely clean"), which corresponds to the α-oligosaprobic zone according to the scale of saprobity. The average value of the index of saprobity, calculated from the quantitative ratio of the indicator species of zooplankton, makes it possible to classify the lake as a β-mesosaprobic type. According to the level of quantitative development of macrozoobenthos, Lake Pandozero corresponds to the oligotrophic type of reservoirs, the chironomid index "K" can be attributed to moderately polluted water bodies.

Keywords: Kivach Reserve, Lake Pandozero, phytoplankton, trophic status, zoobenthos, zooplankton

p. 3-14 /

Astrahanceva O.Yu.
Belozerceva I.A.
Palkin O.Yu.

The selection in the matter of the waters of lake Baikal areas natural physical and chemical equilibrium with matter the environment

The method of allocation of complex and evolving hierarchical object – part of the physical world – ocean megasystems "substance of water of lake Baikal – the substance streams environment" systems, the substance of which is equilibrium in physico-chemical parameters with similar parameters of the substance to the environment. On the basis of the principles of thermodynamics, the structure of the physico-chemical state of a substance oz of water. Baikal is defined as mnogorazemny. In the matter of the waters of lake Baikal rationally selected areas-reservoirs (South, Selenga tank, Average, Ushkanisland, North), each with different processes and most likely, from the point of view of the nature of the geochemical environment, stable physico-chemical parameters, such as equilibrium parameters of the environment.

Keywords: lake Baikal, megasystem, physico-chemical parameters, tanks, the substance

p. 127-136 /

Turaev D.Yu.

Research of electrochemical firmness of the new insoluble anodic material for purification by electrolysis of industrial washing water from nickel ions on the site of nickel plating of the galvanic production

For essential reduction of receipt of ions of nickel in sewage of the galvanic enterprise it is necessary to carry out after operation of electrochemical nickel plating washing of details in a bath of landlocked washing (a catching bath) from which it is necessary to take ions of nickel electrolysis as the most simple and effective method. The basic complexity of the yielded method - a choice of an insoluble anodic material which should possess high electrochemical firmness - i.e. it is long and smoothly to work as months and years in washing water of a bath of catching. Commercial operation of the insoluble anode from the titan with working bed from the reinforced dioxide of lead in small operated for purification of industrial washing water from nickel ions has shown to installation its high electrochemical and reagent resistance in the sulphate environment, containing 0,08-0,26 g/l of chloride-ions. Multimonthly work of the yielded insoluble anode at anodic current density 12 А/dm2 has not revealed any signs of its destruction. The insoluble anode from the titan with working bed from the reinforced dioxide of lead has sustained passing 88,1 kAhr (41,9 kAhr/dm2 an effective surface) for 3600 hours of electrolysis within 22 months of continuous contact to washing water in a bath of catching containing chlorides-ions. Similar production tests of insoluble anodes from the platinized niobium and the titan have shown following results: limiting time of their work before full failure 1500-2000 hrs, limiting value of quantity of the passed electricity 10,4-11,4 kAhr, the maximum value of specific quantity of an electricity on unit of working area of surface 19,2 kAhr/dm2. The small thickness of a platinum covering (2,5 microns) causes a short serviceable life of the platinized anodes, despite group of firmness of a platinum covering II (rather proof) and III (proof), a corrosion point with 2 on 5 under operating conditions. According to the received results insoluble anodes from the platinized niobium and the titan are unsuitable for long operation in the course of washing water purification in a bath of catching from ions of nickel electrolysis.

Keywords: nickel ions, sulphate nickel plating, the insoluble anode from the lead dioxide, the platinized niobium and the titan, washing water

p. 15-23 /

Davydova N.D.

Change of the chemical composition of water objects of southern minusinsk depression under the influence of dust and gas issues of the aluminium production plants

Natural waters are one of the vital resources subject to influence of various anthropogenic substances. Information as about the initial chemical composition of water objects (or a background), and in pollution zones for the purpose of an assessment of the happened changes by a comparison method is necessary for an assessment of water pollution levels of this or that territory. Natural waters are formed of an atmospheric precipitation, which on the way to water objects is enriched with various salts, which composition considerably depends on purity of the atmosphere. The purpose of work consists in establishment of levels of pollutant maintenance (fluorine, sodium, aluminum, nickel) in objects of the water environment of the territory on which the industrial complex on aluminum production and consumer goods works and develops. Research methods are standard. Fluoride-ion is distinguished from pollutants as a priority element. Range of distribution the dust and gas issues of this enterprise F- revealed according to contents in snow cover makes 25-30 km. Within the specified territory the chemical composition of an atmospheric precipitation (rain, snow), waters of a superficial and intra soil drain, the rivers, lakes and underground waters is established. It is shown that, judging by the increased maintenance of F-, the water component of an initial link of formation of the hydrosphere has undergone the greatest influence: an atmospheric precipitation (rain, snow waters) - inside soil solutions (lysimetric waters) - ground waters. The increased amount of fluorine in lakes is caused mainly by natural factors. Steadily low level of maintenance of the element remains in the Yenisei River, which is in 5 km to the South from a source of issues and deep waters. The received results will be applied both for monitoring, and at an assessment of change macro - and microelement composition of waters as a result of industrial issues by aluminum production.

Keywords: aluminum production, chemical composition, fluorine, objects of the water environment, pollutants

p. 137-143 /

Kochetova Zh.Yu.
Kuchmenko T.A.
Bazarskij O.V.

Method of rapid analysis of natural waters after leakage of oil products

A method of rapid determination of petroleum products in natural water using a piezoelectric resonator modified by multilayer carbon nanotubes is proposed. The method is based on the differences in the kinetic characteristics of sorption on multilayer carbon nanotubes of non-polluted natural water and water with hydrocarbons. This approach allows to determine the level of water pollution by oil products in the range of concentrations of 5-150 MPC at 5-30 C in the field without sample preparation. The time of one measurement does not exceed 5-10 minutes, which is especially important in emergency situations as a result of oil spills. The method was tested in the" center of hygiene and epidemiology № 97 FMBA of Russia " under sanitary monitoring of the water of the Voronezh reservoir near the military airfield and test benches of carrier rockets after emissions of aviation kerosene: the test-determination error does not exceed 20 %.

Keywords: express-analysis, kerosene, multilayered carbon nanotubes, natural water, oil, piezosensor

p. 24-31 /

Kotegov B.G.
Lohanina S.Yu.

The influence of catchment factors on the content of calcium and magnesium ions in the water of small ponds in the Udmurt Republic

The values of content of calcium and magnesium ions and total mineralization of water were determined in 30 small anthropogenic reservoirs located in the central-eastern part of the Udmurt Republic in the beginning of the summer low water period. A factor analysis of the influence of local features of the catchment areas on the variability of these hydrochemical parameters was realized in the group of the studied reservoirs. It was found that the content of magnesium ions in ponds was influenced significantly by natural factor – composition of soil-forming rocks that were dominant in their catchments. The presence within the catchments of clay sediments and a large number of springs that feed the tributaries, contributed to the increase of magnesium concentration in the receiving water bodies. Total mineralization of the studied reservoirs was closely related to the content of calcium ions in the water, the values of these two hydrochemical parameters were influenced primarily by anthropogenic factors. The reduction of the forest cover in the catchment areas as a result of the development of economic activities and the advent of the industrial pollution sources was accompanied by a significant increase in total mineralization and content of calcium ions in the water. It was mostly evident in the water of ponds located in the old producing oil fields and the eastern industrial suburbs of Izhevsk.

Keywords: calcium ions, catchment, magnesium ions, ponds, water mineralization

p. 152-161 /

Andreev A.I.
Atanova E.V.
Kondrateva L.M.

Features distribution of radon in groundwaters the city of Khabarovsk

The results of seasonal monitoring of the radon volume activity in the water samples taken in various districts of Khabarovsk, Russian Federation are represented. It is found out that the level of the radon volume activity in every researched underground source exceeds the hygienic standards. The estimation of yearly possible effective doses and the risks of cancer development resulting from internal irradiation caused by ingestion of the water from underground sources is given. Reduction of the radon volume activity in upper levels of the aquifer caused by raised proportion of surface runoff in the summer period is noticed. The values of the radon volume activity in the city’s plumbing system, mostly, meet the hygienic standards. The increase of radon concentration in water which exceeds the action level was noticed in some instances.

Keywords: radon, risks of cancer development, underground water

p. 32-38 /

Sapronova Zh.A.
Sverguzova S.V.
Svyatchenko A.V.

Deterioration of sewerage systems as a factor environmental hazards on Belgorod region example

Traditionally, as the threats to the environment are considered insufficiently treated wastewater discharges, malfunction of the wastewater treatment systems and facilities, ineffective water treatment technologies. At the same time, the role of sewerage systems in environmental safety ensuring is often underestimated, as a result of which insufficient attention is paid to the maintenance, reconstruction and efficient operation by government authorities, public and private organizations. From 523 thousand km of urban water supply networks in the cities of the Russian Federation urgent repair require 92 thousand km, i.e., about 20% of networks, and out of 163 thousand km of urban non-pressure drainage pipelines - 58 thousand km, i.е. about 30% of networks. In the Belgorod region, the extent of pressure and gravity collectors with 100% wear is 103.42 km, i.e. 14.61% of the total length of the networks. All of them are in work, which reduces the reliability of the sewage network as a whole. More than half (53.91%) in the network structure are wearied up to level of more than 50%.
To solve the problem of optimizing the functioning of water disposal systems, it is necessary to involve specialized organizations, since they have high qualification of personnel, the necessary equipment and work experience.

Keywords: ecological safety, water disposal, water objects

p. 162-165 /

Yandieva M.S.
Shadieva A.I.
Archakova R.D.
Uzhahova L.Ya.
Sultygova Z.H.
Temirhanov B.A.
Kitieva L.I.
Didigova L.A.
Ozdoeva H.S.
Evloeva A.Ya.

Determination of heavy metals in the spring of mountain Ingushetia

In this work, the study of the quality of the spring waters of the Republic of Ingushetia is continued. The present study is devoted to a more complete study of one of the most famous mountain springs in the Jayrah region. In addition to the previously obtained data on basic physicochemical parameters and sanitary and hygienic assessment, the content of heavy metals is shown here, in particular, it is determined that the spring contains silver, which determines its therapeutic wound healing properties. Also in the article the analysis of diseases of the population of the village nearby to the spring is made, which is probably connected with the quality of water.

Keywords: atomic absorption spectrometer, metals, springs, water

p. 39-46 /

Kremeneckaya E.R.
Lomova D.V.
Sokolov D.I.
Lomov V.A.

Quantifying of organic matter fluxes to sediments at the stratified valley type reservoir

Eutrophication of water objects, observed worldwide, leads to the intensification of organic matter and associated nutrients circulation in a water body. One of the components of the organic matter cycle in the pond is sedimentation flux.
A direct study of the substance flux at the bottom associated with the sedimentation traps set is time-consuming, so it necessary to find dependencies of the organic matter flux to the bottom from the easily identifiable characteristics.
On the base of field and laboratory observations on the Mozhaisk reservoir in the period 2008-2012 there were estimated values of fluxes of organic matter to the bottom. The experimental part consisted of sedimentation traps set with the parallel study of the hydrophysical and hydrochemical characteristics of the water column and bottom sediments.
Correlation analysis revealed the existence of statistically significant correlation coefficients values of the organic matter flux to the bottom of the net primary production of phytoplankton, the content of suspended matter in the water column, the content of allochthonous organic substances in water, the average vertical gradient of water temperature and intensity of the resuspension of bottom sediments, which is largely determined by the ratio of wind speed to the average depth of the reservoir.
The proposed statistical functions for calculating the flow of organic matter to the bottom, given its vertical and semi horizontal components.

Keywords: organic matter, reservoir stratification, sedimentation

p. 47-52 /

Sadyhova L.R.

Seasonal dynamics of the content of petroleum hydrocarbons in bottom sediment of the Caspian Sea along the Absheron shelf

The paper presents the results of a study of the seasonal dynamics of the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in bottom sediments of the Caspian Sea along the Absheron shelf. Sediment samples were collected in summer, winter and spring seasons. The quantitative analysis was carried out on chromatograph with flame-ionization detector. Concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons varied in summer from 2,1 ug/g to 249300 ug/g, in winter - от 2,3 до 304500 ug/g, in spring – от 2,5 до 300700 ug/g dry weight. During the study the highest content of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediment was observed in the winter, the lowest - in the summer. Seasonal dynamics can be caused by the influence of the temperature factor on the rate of transformation of organic compounds as a result of biochemical processes. The bottom sediments in the Baku Bay area were the most polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons in all periods of time.

Keywords: Caspian Sea, petroleum hydrocarbons, seasonal dynamics, sediment

p. 53-61 /

Artemev S.N.
Novoselov A.P.
Levickij A.L.

Spatial variability of benthic communities in the Dvina, Onega and Kandalaksha bays of the White sea in 2016

The article deals with the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the benthic communities (macrozoobenthos) in the Dvina, Onega and Kandalaksha bays of the White Sea as of 2016. Prevailing taxonomic groups are estimated and presented in ratio. It was revealed that the distribution of macrozoobenthos is of a mosaic nature. At the same time the largest values of number and biomass of macrozoobenthos were recorded for the Dvina and Onega Bays, which is explained by predominance in the samples of both species providing for high number (polychaetes) and for biomass (bivalve). Shennon index, Simpson index and the biodiversity index in relation to biomass are calculated. The results may be used to assess environmental impact and while implementing integrated environmental monitoring programs in the White Sea.

Keywords: biomass, Dvina, Indices of species diversity, macrozoobenthos, number, Onega and Kandalaksha bays, the White Sea

p. 62-68 /

Markina Zh.V.
Ajzdajcher N.A.
Orlova T.Yu.
Voznesenskij S.S.
Gamayunov E.L.
Popik A.Yu.

Population growth and state of the photosynthetic apparatus of the diatom Attheya ussurensis exposed to excess copper

Copper (Cu2+) at a concentration of 0,05 mg/L has been found to retard the population growth, as well as to reduce the content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids and the level of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). A concentration of 0,1 mg/L Cu2+ causes a pronounced growth inhibition and a reduction in the content of photosynthetic pigments and LIF level. After subculturing the alga from a concentration of 0,05 mg/L to 0,05 mg/L Cu2+, values of all the parameters become higher than those in the control. When the alga is subculturing from a concentration of 0,05 to 0,1 mg/L Cu2+, the negative changes in its population grow even more pronounced. The most negative impact is observed in case the alga is transferring from 0,1 to 0,1 mg/L Cu2.

Keywords: Attheya ussurensis, copper, diatoms, environmental pollution, photosynthetic system

p. 69-74 /

Hazheeva Z.I.
Sanzhanova S.S.

Chemical composition of waste water and liming of sewage sludge for reduced mobility of heavy metals

The article contains data on the chemical composition of waste water and sludge of city sewage treatment plants in Ulan-Ude. The wastewater discharged after biological treatment is characterized by a high content of biogenic elements, heavy metals and petroleum products. Liming of sludge reduces the content of mobile forms of heavy metals Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, which will reduce their flow into wastewater of treatment plants.

Keywords: biogenic elements, heavy metals, liming of sludge, mobile forms of heavy metals

p. 75-83 /

Ergozhin E.E.
Chalov T.K.
Kovrigina T.V.
Pryatko E.Yu.
Melnikov E.A.

Non-reagent purification of wastewater treatment of petrochemical production with minimum release

The paper provides the data on the treatment of waste waters of Atyrau oil processing plant LLP. The topicality of the subject is stipulated by the emission of a big number of organic and inorganic polluting substances into the environment. The method of reverse osmosis itself is one of the efficient methods of purification, though herewith, the membranes are rapidly contaminated with oil products and other organic compounds, containing in the discharges of petrochemical enterprises, which considerably reduces their operating life. Magnetic-pulse water treatment makes it possible to regulate the chaotic motion of molecules, not allowing them to precipitate on the membrane surface, and not causing their premature ageing. Preliminary treatment on sorption filters ensures purification from phenols and oil products. The proposed method, based on reverse osmosis, combined with electromagnetic treatment device, allows one to reach the required water treatment standards, put forth by the plant.

Keywords: degree of purification, electromagnetic treatment device, requirements to purified water, reverse osmosis, waste waters of petrochemical production

p. 84-90 /

Sapronova Zh.A.
Sverguzova S.V.
Svyatchenko A.V.

The role of natural hydrophobicity of plants in the purification of oily emulsions

In the work some investigations were carried out in order to assess the effect of natural hydrophobicity of chestnut tree waste (Aésculus hippocastanum L.) on the extraction of petroleum products from model emulsions. It is shown that wood tree waste with an undamaged wax coating extracts hydrophobic substances from aqueous media much better. To achieve the same efficiency of water treatment with the use of tree waste which lacks a wax coating, it is necessary to add more sorption material than while using naturally hydrophobized leaves. The chestnut tree waste is a valuable raw material resource, which is potentially suitable for use as a sorption material. The chemical composition imparts unique physicochemical properties to it which must be taken into account in thermal modification and application in water treatment.

Keywords: adsorption, hydrophobicity, oil products, tree waste, wax

p. 91-96 /

Zhivoglyadova L.A.
Afanasev D.F.

Macrozoobenthos of the river Don at the confluence of Teply kanal of Novocherkasskaya GRES (hydro-electric power plant) and the river Don

Based on the results of hydrobiological studies conducted in January 2017, data are presented on the qualitative composition and structural characteristics of the zoobenthos in the river Don and near the mouth of Teply Kanal (the Warm Channel) of Novocherkasskaya GRES. There were revealed variations in the zoobenthos abundance by sampling stations. In the Teply Kanal the zoobenthos number averaged 550 ind./m2 and the biomass was 65,7 g/m2, in the Don the similar parameters amounted to 32611 ind./m2 and 2191,4 g/m2. It was observed that in the region of thermal discharge, macrozoobenthos is more abundant due to the development of the Dreissena biocenosis. Along with the aboriginal species of Dreissena polymorpha, the invasive species D. bugensis dominates in the communities, it constitutes up to 72% of the total biomass of the community.

Keywords: communities of benthic organisms, Don River, dreissena, invasive species, zoobenthos

p. 97-102 /

Baturina N.S.

Zoogeographical structure of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) population at Salair Ridge

We proposed on the original and published data the Salair Ridge, located at the zone of huge ecotone, to be a place for mayflies (Ephemeroptera) species of Western and Eastern fauna transitional spreading through the Western Siberia sought territory. It is shown for sought region of the Western Siberia, based on cluster analysis of mayfly fauna similarity, that rithrail species complexes prevail at the Salair mayflies population. The main way of Eastern Palearctic fauna species spreading in the space of Western Siberia sought is small river of Salair Ridge. Probably, low level of Western Pаlearctic fauna species present in Salair rivers is due to long period of isolation from northwest taken place for this territory during Pleistocene period by of climate and landscape specialty of the West Siberian Plate.

Keywords: Ephemeroptera, natural region, Salair Ridge, zoogeography