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Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology» № 4-6 (115) за June 2018 г.</H3>

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology»

№ 4-6 (115) за June 2018 г.

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p. 7-11 /

Brekhovskih V.F.
Volkova Z.V.

Phytoplankton biomass long-term dynamics in two reservoirs of the valley type

Phytoplankton biomass and chlorophyll «a» content dynamics was studied in Ivankovskoye and Ribinskoye reservoirs. Its trophic status can vary accordingly from the low position to the high one and vice versa. Some explanations of the situation are given on the base of complex characteristics analysis.

Keywords: chlorophyll a, phytoplankton biomass, trophic status

p. 131-136 /

Sauc A.V.
Eregina S.V.

Numerical simulation of nonstationary filtration in solving problems of water use and ecology

The article considers the application of numerical simulation of non-stationary filtration pro-cesses in porous media for solving problems of water use and environmental protection on the example of emergency overflow of the sewer well. Software implementation of the model is performed in the environment «Comsol Multiphysics» using the finite element method. The model is based on the nonstationary Darcy and diffusion equations in porous media and the corresponding initial and boundary conditions, taking into account the self-compaction of the medium under the action of water pressure. The results of the study have practical application in determining the filtration rate, pressure, depth and time of penetration of water and concen-trations of harmful impurities contained therein into the thickness of the enclosing structures and waterproofing materials, which makes it possible to assess their protective properties.

Keywords: ammonia, filtration, insulation, low-pressure polyethylene

p. 12-18 /

Gavrilkina S.V.

Dynamics of mass transfer of heavy metals in landscape – geochemical conditions of the Southern Urals

The study of the anthropogenic impact on the environment is one of the most important problems of our time. In the Southern Urals there are many plants of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, machine building, and there is a developed transport network. Investigating landscapes under the influence of the Karabash copper smelter, and comparing it with the conditionally background territory of the Ilmen State Reserve, we found that the migration of heavy metals significantly increases in the impact zone. The value of heavy metals, strongly connected with dust particles, sharply increases by 10-100 orders of magnitude. As a result, active accumulation of pollutant elements occurs in landscapes. The bulk accumulates in the soil. At the same time, the capacity of the biological circulation of metals is greatly increased: Fe is 3 times, Mn is 4-8 times, Ni is 10-14 times, Zn is 40-100 times, Cu is 50-200 times, Pb is 100-400 times, Cd is 1000-3000 times.

Keywords: atmospheric transport, biological circulation, heavy metals, landscape, sources of pollution

p. 137-146 /

Mangazeev A.V.
Potapov V.V.
Gorev D.S.
Goreva T.S.

Application of membranes in the technological process of milk curd whey processing

The situation in the dairy industry tends to expand the range of dairy products, which leads to an increase in the volume of whey – a secondary product/ The introduction of high-tech membrane processes will allow to hang filtrate with characteristics acceptable to its discharge in to collector of treatment facilities. The experiments on membrane concentration of curd whey using membrane processes of two types – nanofiltration and reverse osmosis were performed. The dependence of the performance of baromembrane installations of inlet pressure, determined the total protein concentrations of the concentrate, the filtrate and original environment, the main features of membrane processes. The samples of filtrate achieved a significant reduction in biochemical oxygen demand compared to the experiment make it possible to evaluate the possibility of using membrane processes in the technological process of dairy production, obtaining a dairy product with specified characteristics and the optimal method of whey utilization.

Keywords: curd milk whey, dry matter, fat, membrane selectivity and permeability, protein

p. 19-24 /

Soloveva O.V.
Tihonova E.A.
Mironov O.A.
Zaharchenko D.A.

Monitoring of oil hydrocarbons concentrations in the coastal waters of the Crimea

Monitoring of the ecological status of Crimean coast has significant environmental importance. The purpose of the work was to determine the concentrations of oil hydrocarbons in the water stratum of the Azov-Black Sea coastal water area of the Crimea, which could be the first stage of the planning and conducting regular research. Also it should provide the information on their content in the investigated region during the spring period. The amount of oil hydrocarbons (OH) in water was determined by IR spectrometry. The analysis of OH content in the waters of the twelve-mile zone of the Crimean coast of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov has shown that in general this water area, in spite of the presence of this pollutant, is characterized as pure according to the determined index. It was marked that there is a decrease in the amount of oil hydrocarbons at most of the stations with increasing deapth. It demonstrates the superficial pathway of OH entering the sea. The excess of maximal permissible concentration (MPC) was recorded in the vicinity of the Kerch Strait. In general a decrease in the concentrations of OH compared to the same period of 1995 was noted. Despite the fact that the current content of this pollutant in the waters of the Crimean coast is far from dangerous for hydrobionts, the monitoring of oil hydrocarbons levels is necessary due to the increasing anthropogenic load on the recreational zones of the Crimea.

Keywords: Black Sea, coast, oil hydrocarbons, seawater, the Sea of Azov

p. 147-153 /

Oberemok V.N.
Laptev A.S.

Electromagnetic vortex layer plants with ferromagnetic elements for wastewater treatment from heavy metals

Extremely dangerous for water bodies are wastewater from chemical, machine-building, food, petrochemical and other industries. Their diversity of composition and concentrations of contaminants requires the reliable and effective cleaning methods.
This article examines wastewater treatment from heavy metals (hexavalent chromium Cr6 +, copper Cu, nickel Ni, zinc Zn, iron Fe, cadmium Cd) with electromagnetic vortex layer units with the help of ferromagnetic working elements (the AVS). It presents the test results of these units in industrial facilities. It also proposes the AVS based technological scheme for purification of wastewater simultaneously from chromium, acidic or alkaline.
It is established that using the AVS in treating the chromium-containing wastewater in alkaline medium allows to achieve higher quality of purification from heavy metals, reduce reagent consumption and simplify the operation of treatment plants.

Keywords: purification of acidic or alkaline wastewater, purification of chromium-containing wastewater, vortex layer plant, wastewater treatment

p. 25-35 /

Chaus B.Yu.

Indication of anthropogenic pollution of water in the upper and middle currents of the Belaya river (Republic of Bashkortostan) on occurrence of the organisms which are a part of a macrozoobenthos

In article the analysis of possibility of using invertebrates included in the composition of benthic invertebrates for bioindication of anthropogenic pollution in the environmental monitor of the Belaya river in the upper and middle currents. The collection of invertebrates (larvae of the groups Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera) and analysis of the constancy (fractional units) was conducted in 10 districts of the state vodopetov located on the Belaya river from 2005 to 2016. For the hydrochemical characteristic of alignments data on content in river waters of compounds of manganese, nickel and iron, oil products, phenols, nitrogen ammoniyny, coppers, zincum, sulfates, chlorides, a nitrite nitrogen were used. As a complex indicator used in the specific combinatorial index of water pollution. The mathematical analysis of specified gradation of anthropogenic pollution of the water of the Belaya river in its upper and middle currents. Correlations were found between the permanence of the larvae of some species from the groups Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera of chemical substances defined by regulatory organizations in rivers of Bashkortostan. Built regression models to indicate the concentration of pollutants depending on the occurrence of aquatic organisms in the upper and middle reaches of the Belaya river. This approach, apparently, will allow to develop recommendations for the replacement of a number of chemical analyses for cheaper biological analyses and to identify the most strongly influence the aquatic fauna of a chemical that is critical to making technological solutions for wastewater discharged into surface waters of the Republic of Bashkortostan.

Keywords: Belaya River, constancy of types, correlative and regression analyses, hydrochemical parameters, macrozoobenthos, South Ural

p. 36-44 /

Reshetnyak O.S.

Spatial-temporal variability of the structure of benthic communities and the ecosystem state of the Lower Don River

There are water quality deterioration, pollution of aquatic ecosystems and violation of their ecological state in modern conditions of anthropogenic impact. There is a transformation of the state of aquatic ecosystems due to the variability of the water composition and community structures. A universal indicator of the anthropogenic changes occurring in the ecosystem can be the response of individual communities of aquatic organisms to a drastic change in their habitat. Benthic communities are sensitive indicators of pollution of aquatic ecosystems, and their structural and functional characteristics are an important element of ecological monitoring of surface waters.
The results of the estimation of the spatiotemporal variability of the benthic communities indices and the state of aquatic ecosystems in various parts of the Lower Don are presents in the paper. An analysis of interannual variability of the development level of benthic showed that the number of species varies mainly from 1 to 4, less often reaches 5-6. The variability of the total abundance values is very high from 200 ind /m2 to the values of 10200 and 11360 ind/m2, which were observed in the estuary of the Don River. The dominant community complex is represented by Сhironomidae and Oligochaeta, the mass development of the latter is an indicator of the aquatic ecosystems pollution.
About half of the studied river sites are in a transition state from "natural or equilibrium" to "crisis" and water quality corresponds to II-IV classes ("clean", "moderately polluted" or "contaminated" waters). Ecosystems of the second half of the river sites - in a transitional state from "equilibrium or crisis" to "critical" condition and water quality corresponds to III-IV classes.
The obtained results are of great practical importance and acquire special relevance for the solution of a number of issues related to the assessment of the ecological prosperity of water bodies and the forecasting of water quality.

Keywords: benthic communities, dominant species, lower stream of the Don River, state of river ecosystems, water quality, Оligochaeta

p. 45-49 /

Ksenofontov M.A.
Ostrovskaya L.E.
Gavrilenko O.O.
Vasileva V.S.
Vasilevskaya L.N.
Pavlyukevich T.G.

Regularities of absorption of oil products from water streams polymeric sorbents

The development of efficient technologies and materials that ensure deep purification of water resources from pollution is of paramount importance for solving environmental problems. To determine the parameters of effective wastewater treatment contaminated with oil products and the selection of sorbents that allow extracting petroleum products from sewage and storm water streams to the MPC norms, we have developed design documentation and made an experimental setup that allows changing and recording the temperature, speed, and productivity of the water flow. It has been established that at a water flow rate of 8,0 l/min and initial oil product concentrations of 300 ÷ 125 mg/l, the use of Megasorb sorbents and Penopurm allows to reduce the oil product concentration within 2 hours to 0,3 mg/l.

Keywords: experimental installation, Megasorb, Non-woven hydrophobic adsorbent material, Penopurm, polymeric sorbents, regularities of sorption of petroleum products from water flow

p. 50-54 /

Mineev A.K.

Histopathologies of skeletal muscles at fishes from the polluted site of the river Pozim (Udmurt Republic)

The results of studies of histological pathologies of skeletal muscles in juveniles and mature individuals of the roach (Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus, 1758) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus Linnaeus, 1758) from the Pozim river section in the city of Izhevsk, where the level of water pollution is very high, are presented. The dynamics of the detected types of skeletal musculature pathology’s in adult fish of both species is shown. The direct dependence of the occurrence of muscle pathologies in fish on the degree of pollution of the reservoir is revealed.

Keywords: anthropogenic impact, fry fishes, morphological abnormalities, pathology of skeletal musculature, pollutants, sexually maturity zooid

p. 55-62 /

Haliullina L.Yu.

Research of phytoplankton of the river Stepnoy Zay (left tributary of the Kama River, Republic of Tatarstan).

The report presents the results of investigations of the phytoplankton of the river Stepnoy Zay (left tributary of the Kama River, Republic of Tatarstan). During the observations, 59 taxa of plankton algae were identified. The greatest species diversity is characteristic of open water with banks without thickets of macrophytes. The phytoplankton is dominated by diatoms, green and euglene algae. The maximum quantitative indicators (total abundance and biomass) are characteristic for sections of the river with macrophyte thickets. The waters of the investigated section of the river. Steppe Zai refer to β-mezasaprobic type and moderately-polluted zone. The trophic status of water among macrophyte thickets mostly corresponds to eutrophic water, in open water - meso- and eutrophic.

Keywords: algae, algocenosis, phytoplankton, the river Stepnoy Zay

p. 63-74 /

Dzyuba A.V.

Climatic Cryolite Effect

Topical issues of the reaction of water objects of the permafrost zone to modern climate changes are considered. The change in the albedo of the underlying surface is analyzed with a change in the degree of solidity of permafrost in the Arctic zone. A physical mechanism for the formation of the climatic Cryolite Effect is described as the total effect of the reverse climatic relationships due to the modern dynamics of the Cryolithosphere. A physically and empirically justified explanation of the formation of the planetary maximum of the concentration of carbon dioxide and methane in the Arctic zone was proposed, while the anthropogenic emissions of these gases are maximal in the temperate and subtropical latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The assumption that thawing of permafrost rocks is at present largely an endogenous process is substantiated. The observed degradation of the Cryolithosphere is due not only to an increase in the temperature of surface air, but also to the energetic effect of biochemical reactions directed towards a decrease in the enthalpy and an increase in the entropy of the system of immobile water objects and thawing soil. The obtained results confirm the remarkable ability of nature to damp the modern largely anthropogenic climatic and environmental impacts that are most sharply manifested in the Arctic.

Keywords: climate change, permafrost, stationary water bodies

p. 75-85 /

Gordeev V.V.
Chulcova A.L.
Kochenkova A.I.
Belorukov S.K.
Chupakova A.A.
Moreva O.Yu.
Neverova N.V
Chupakov A.V.

Seasonal variations of the concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients in the lower Severnaya Dvina and in the river-sea mixing zone

The results of the first two years of work in the frames of the project “Observatory –the Marginal Filter of Severnaya Dvina River” are presented. The main aim of this project is the regular investigations of sedimentological, geochemical and biological processes in the marginal filter zone of the Severnaya Dvina River in its lower flow and its marginal filter (MF). The MF is the the river - sea mixing zone which is the natural trap for all kinds of dissolved and particulate material on its way from continent to sea or ocean. This paper is devoted to the results of determination of the dissolved mineral forms of N, P and Si. The samples of surface water were taken every month during two years in two points – in the Arkhangelsk city (Yacht-club) and in the port Economya. In the MF the samples were taken two times in a year – in spring immediately after the ice coming off and in the period of low water in August. Water was filtered through the Nuclepore filters at the day of sampling and the nutrient elements were determined by the generally accepted methods. The results show that concentrations of nitrites, nitrates, phosphates and silica are greatly changed in seasons and between years. The ratios between maximum and minimum concentrations during two years of observations were in a range 11-16 for NO2-N, PO4-P and Si, and especially great for NO3-N– up to 620. A comparison with the typical for World Rivers concentrations have shown that concentrations of nitrites and phosphates were in 2-3 times higher than global ones, concentrations of nitrates were close to global level and silica only was approximately in 1.5 times lower the global concentration. The correlation between molar ratios of N/P, Si/P and Si/N (Redfield ratios) have shown that N only was the limiting factor for normal activity of phytoplankton in the ecosystem of the lower flow of the river. The concentrations of the elements in the MF zone were determined in the whole range of salinity from river waters up to sea waters. It was found that at high water in spring residence time of water in MF was much lower than in period of low water. This time was not enough for normal development of biochemical processes which provided influence on the concentrations and forms of elements in the MF zone. At low water in August the dependences of the concentrations from salinity begun to be more complicated and variable. The works in the frames of this project are continued.

Keywords: annual fluxes of elements, marginal filter of the Severnaya Dvina, nutrient elements, seasonal variations

p. 86-91 /

Kutergin A.S.

Sorbent based on glauconite forcleaning radioactively contaminated natural waters

It is shown the expediency of using modified sorbent for purification of natural water from radionuclides of cesium and strontium. The results of activating the surface of granular glauconite are presented. As a result, it was found that a weak alkali solution increases its strontium distribution coefficient ≈ 2 times, but does not affect the sorption of cesium. The possibility of sorption concentration of radionuclide 90Sr from aqueous solutions with a modified sorbent - iron phosphate on a granular support, under static conditions is considered. In the range of concentrations of strontium, within which the distribution of the extracted component between the solid and liquid phases obeys Henry's law (10-7 ÷ 10-3 g/l), the distribution coefficient is Kd = (1.6 ± 0.7) • 103 ml/g. The attained value of the static exchange capacity for strontium of the modified sorbent (≥ 42 mg/g) significantly exceeds the capacity of the carrier. The establishment of equilibrium in the system of the modified sorbent – solution occurs much faster than in granulated glauconite. It has been experimentally proved that modified by iron phosphate sorbent, increased the specificity to strontium at 10 time, retained the value of the distribution coefficient with respect to cesium at the level granulated glauconite. This will allow using it for complex treatment of aquatic environments. The obtained experimental data can be used in the development of new sorbents capable of providing efficient and rapid concentration of 90Sr and 137Cs in the rehabilitation of natural water sources in radioactively contaminated areas.

Keywords: glauconite, modification, purification of natural waters, sorption of radionuclides

p. 92-100 /

Nikolaeva L.A.
Hamzina D.A.

Purification of water sources from oil pollution by hydrophobic carbonate sludge

The paper presents laboratory and experimental studies on the utilization of oiled energy waste generated after the adsorption treatment of surface water sources from oil spills. Energy waste is a slurry of chemical water treatment, formed at the stage of preliminary purification of natural raw water during liming and coagulation. Based on the sludge, the hydrophobic sorption material "GSM" was developed. The following requirements are imposed on the sorption materials that allow, at low costs, the most effective cleaning of the water surface from petroleum products: hydrophobicity, high oil content, buoyancy, ease of utilization from the water surface, efficient work in a different temperature range, resistance to water disruption, optimum price. The material obtained has these requirements. The technical characteristics of the developed sorbent are determined: oil capacity, wetting contact angle, an express analysis of the quality of aqueous extract of the developed hydrophobic sorbent on acute lethal toxicity of fish of the Poecilliareticulata Pet. and crustaceans Daphniamagna Str. A technological scheme for utilization of oil-contaminated hydrophobic sorption material as a secondary energy resource in industrial enterprises is proposed.

Keywords: chemical water treatment slurry, hydrophobization, industrial enterprises, oil consumption, oil spills, recycling technology, secondary energy resource, sorption material «GSM»

p. 101-105 /

Lapteva E.A.
Laptev A.G.

Thermal efficiency and calculation of water cooling in film cooling towers

The algorithm of calculation of the efficiency of cooling the liquid in a LM cooling tower with a nozzle in the counter flow of water with air, which takes into account back-mixing of gas and liquid phases. Initially, the calculated thermal efficiency for the air flow, using the heat balance equation for the given operating conditions of the cooling water. Then using the cell model and the number of transfer units is the estimated thermal efficiency for a specific block of sprinklers with desired structural characteristics. To check the adequacy of the method of calculating the results of experimental studies of cooling water on the laboratory layout with tubular mesh packing made of polyethylene. Shown satisfactory agreement of calculation results with experiment. Thus, the presented calculation method allows to take into account back-mixing on the efficiency of water cooling, and to execute the design or modernization of the units of the contact device of the cooling tower using the obtained from the experiment of hydraulic resistance.

Keywords: circulating flows, contact device, cooling tower, cooling water, thermal efficiency

p. 106-115 /

Efimova T.V.
Churilova T.Ya.
Muhanov V.S.
Sahon E.G.

The chromatic adaptation of c- phycoerythrin -containing cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. (Black Sea)

Effect of light of different spectral composition on the structural and functional characteristics of cyanobacteria, which are an important component of the aquatic environment and determine water quality, has been investigated. The experiments with the strain of cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. BS9001 have shown no changes in the ratio between chlorophyll a and accessory pigments typical for complementary chromatic adaptation. The growth rate increased when the cells were growing under the color light (green light) spectral features of which were complementary to the C-phycoerythrin absorbance band, and decreased when cells were adapted to the color light with spectral features not coincided with the C-phycoerythrin absorbance band. The investigations curried out in the Black Sea have shown that during the seasons when water column was stratified the abundance of picocyanobacteria increased with depth being maximal in the phytoplankton community existing in the water layer under the seasonal thermocline. For this deep phytoplankton community it was obtained that pigment absorption spectra had local maximum at ~ 550 nm, which was likely to be related to C-phycoerythrin containing picocyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. Coincidence of C-phycoerythrin absorbance with the spectral features of radiance penetrating to the euphotic zone bottom could cause high abundance of C-phycoerythrin containing picoplankton Synechococcus sp. below the thermocline.

Keywords: Synechococcus sp. BS9001– рicocyanobacteria - spectral features of radiation – pigments

p. 116-123 /

Sagakyanc M.M.
Chemisova O.S.
Golenischeva E.N.
Poleeva M.V.

Evaluation of potential use of quaternary ammonium compounds for decontamination of Vibrio cholerae including in ships’ ballast water

Transfer of foreign species of animals, plants, microorganisms including pathogenic in ships’ water ballast poses a significant threat to the environmental health and economy. According to the standart of ballast water quality, the presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 and O139 in ships’ ballast is inadmissible. In this work the bactericidal activity of disinfectans on the base of quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) in relation to cholera vibrios has been studied and their effect on zoo- and phytoplankton has been evaluated. It is shown that bacterial activity against V. cholerae strains has disinfectans on the base of QAC in concentrations not less than 0.1% by active substance for 30 minutes. The bactericidal concentrations of disinfectans on the base of QAC exert a toxic effect on the Chlorella vulgaris Beyerink alga and cause the death of the infusorians of the Paramecium caudatum.

Keywords: phytoplankton, quaternary ammonium compounds, ships’ ballast water, Vibrio cholerae, zooplankton

p. 3-6 /

Dacenko Yu.S.

Specificity of the runoff formation of manganese and iron during periods of spring flood

The connections between water flow and concentrations of total iron and manganese are discusses in various phases of floods in the rivers Volga and Tvertsa are discussed. The obtained dependences confirms the hysteretic nature of these relationships due to changes in the genetic components of runoff in the flood period.

Keywords: flood, iron, manganese, statistical characteristics, Tvertsa, Volga

p. 124-130 /

Kuliev D.A.

Determination of lethal dose of metals on Caspian Sea phytoplankton

A number of studies are currently conducting with purpose of seasonal and annual monitoring of the Caspian Sea. A lot of statistical data are collected during these monitorings. But the issue of the harmful concentrations of metal to the inhabitants of the Caspian Sea is still open.
The paper presents the results of a study of lethal dose (LC50) of some metals on Caspian Sea phytoplankton. Algae Chaetoceros Tennissimus were used as a test material, and Mo, Al, Co, As, Ni, Mn, Cr, Zn, Sb, Sn, Pb, Cu, Se as the analyzed metals. Accoriding to the obtained data a list of increased toxicological effects of these metals on algae Chaetoceros tennissimus was prepared. The results of study showed that the most toxic metals are copper and selenium, the less toxic metals are molybdenum and aliminium.

Keywords: Caspian Sea, heavy metals, lethal concentration, lethal dose (LD50), phytoplankton, toxicity