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  • ISSN 2072-8158
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Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology» № 1-3 (114) за March 2018 г.</H3>

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology»

№ 1-3 (114) за March 2018 г.

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p. 101-112 /

Rybka K.Yu.
Schegolkova N.M.

The role of constructed wetlands in toxic metal wastewater treatment

The article represents an analytical review of the problems of wastewater pollution with toxic metals and its purification by means of natural mechanisms in constructed wetlands (sand-gravel filters, planted with higher aquatic vegetation). The main sources of and forms of such metals as copper, nickel, lead, cadmium, chromium zinc and mercury in surface waters are considered; research of the basic chemical, physical and biological mechanisms of their removal – precipitation and coprecipitation, sorption and plant uptake was conducted. Specific examples of the use of constructed wetlands for treating industrial and domestic wastewater from heavy metals are given. Analysis of 36 systems in 11 countries of the world has shown that constructed wetlands are able to purify wastewater from heavy metals with an efficiency of up to 99%.

Keywords: constructed wetlands, heavy metals, wastewater treatment

p. 120-126 /

Pudova N.E.
Kakurkin N.P.
Byvalcev E.A.
Afonin P.A.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of antiscalants to prevent the precipitation of sparingly soluble salts

The features of implementation of the express technique for evaluation the effectiveness of the antiscalants were considered. The method is based on a visual-microscopic control of the formation of precipitations and studying the effect of type and dose of inhibitors. The conditions have been chosen for the formation of CaCO3 and BaSO4 precipitates, which make it possible to control this process, as well as the conditions for the action of antiscalants. The effectiveness of a number of inhibitors based on phosphonates, NTF (nitrilotrimethylphosphonic acid) and maleic anhydride has been studied on preventing the precipitation of calcium carbonate and barium sulphate.
It is noted that most antiscalants successfully prevent precipitation of selected compounds, even at high degrees of supersaturation of solutions.

Keywords: antiscalants, evaluation of the effectiveness of antiscalants, reverse osmosis

p. 127-133 /

Dashinamzhilova E.C.
Shadrina O.A.
Hanhasaeva S.C.

Photooxidative destruction of organic dyes in the presence of Fe /Al-containing materials obtained on the basis of montmorillonite

The photooxidative destruction of the azo dye Tropeolin-00 has been studied in the presence of Fe / Al-containing materials obtained from natural montmorillonite and polyoxocomplexes of iron-aluminum. It was shown that the materials have a high catalytic activity in the photo-oxidation of the dye carried out in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation (λ = 254 nm). The influence of the catalyst content, the ratio of initial concentrations of the dye and hydrogen peroxide on the efficiency of photo-oxidative degradation was established. The efficiency of the dye photodegradation was 100% onder optimum conditions (the catalyst content 1 g / l, the ratio of concentrations of the dye and hydrogen peroxide 47 mol / mol, pH 5,5, reaction time 120 min). The results of the conducted studies show that the developed iron/ aluminum- containing materials are the promising catalysts for photo-Fenton processes of oxidative degradation of organic compounds and can be used in wastewater treatment processes from toxic organic pollutants.

Keywords: catalytic photo-oxidative destruction, dye, Fe/Al-containing material, hydrogen peroxide, montmorillonite, Tropeolin-00

p. 134-140 /

Smirnova N.N.
Makarova A.A.

Effectiveness of reagent precipitation application in waste water treatment in galvanic in-dustry from copper (II), zinc (II), nickel (II) and cadmium (II) ions

The galvanic industry is a constant source of heavy metal pollution in the entire human habitat - the atmosphere, soils, natural waters. The development of methods for purification and regenera-tion of waste water from galvanic production is given considerable attention. The task of reagent purification methods consists in the transfer of soluble substances into poorly soluble or insoluble by the addition of various compounds, followed by separation of the formed sediments. The methods are fairly simple, technically developed and cost-effective. The degree of purification is determined by the solubility equilibrium of the compounds formed. The objectives of this study are: replacement of reactions for purification of ions of copper (II), zinc (II), nickel (II) and cad-mium (II) from aqueous solutions with initial concentrations from 1 mg/dm3 to 100 mg/dm3, presence of cations in solution. Sodium hydroxide was used as the precipitation reagent. The concentration of heavy metal ions in solutions was monitored by the atomic absorption method after filtering the supernatant through a column filled with quartz sand. The studies carried out showed that the optimal pH for the precipitation of copper (II) ions varies from 8 to 10 (depend-ing on the initial cations concentration in the solution), zinc (II) from 8 to 9, nickel (II) and cad-mium (II) - from 10 to 11. The minimum achieved residual concentration of Cu2+ was 0,018 mg/dm3, Zn2+ - 0,012 mg/dm3, Ni2+ - 0,006 mg/dm3, Cd2+ - 0,001 mg/dm3. In the case of simulta-neous presence in the solution of cations of several metals, a shift in the optimum range of precip-itation of their hydroxides into a more alkaline region is observed.

Keywords: electroplating industry, ions of heavy metals, reagent precipitation, waste water

p. 113-119 /

Sadyhova L.R.

Phenols in coastal sea water along Apsheron Peninsula

The paper presents the results of a study of the distribution of phenols in the bottom seawater from the coastal part of the Caspian Sea in the vicinity of the Absheron peninsula. Thirty-five sea water samples were collected in the autumn period using a Niskin-12L sampler. Mass spectral method of analysis was applied for quantitative analysis. The method made possible to identify phenol and its derivatives at low concentrations. The following compounds of the phenol group were identified in water samples during the analysis: phenol, o-cresol, mixture of m and p-cresol, and 4-nitrophenol. Phenol and the mixture of m and p-cresol were detected in almost all samples. The results of study showed that in bottom water samples the total concentration of phenols varied in the range from 0,02 μg/l to 2,69 μg/l.

Keywords: bottom sea water, Caspian Sea, chromatographic method of analysis, phenols

p. 141-146 /

Nefedeva T.A.
Kalyukova E.N.

The quality of drinking water from underground water objects Cherdaklinsky district of the Ulyanovsk region and public health

The results of a research of the water objects used as sources of drinking water supply of Kalmayursky and October rural settlements of Cherdaklinsky district of the Ulyanovsk region on the point of availability of chemicals (iron, manganese, lead, nickel, copper, zinc, chrome, calcium, magnesium, silicon, aluminum) capable to have negative effect on health of the people are presented. the most wide-spread pollutants in water of the explored springs to which iron and manganese belong are revealed. The maintenance of other indicators in drinking water conforms to hygienic requirements.
The analysis of incidence of residents of Cherdaklinsky district allows to assume that there is a communication between quality of water and incidence of a number of allergic diseases, diseases of a gastrointestinal tract, diseases of a liver and kidneys, diseases of skin and hypodermic cellulose (on negotiability to medical institutions).
On the example of model solutions and water of the explored springs the method of adsorption has determined a possibility of water purification from ions of iron and manganese with use of the natural filtering materials of the Ulyanovsk region: molding, diatomite, dolomite.)

Keywords: contaminants, natural filter media, the hazard ratio, underground sources, water quality

p. 3-11 /

Safronova N.S.
Dvorkin V.I.
Koscheeva I.Ya.
Fedorova L.P.

A Research of Bottom Sediment Composition of Ivankovo Water Storage Reservoir

Subjected to research have been bottom sediments of Inankovo water storage reservoir collected back in 2015. With reference to 42 nonorganic components identified using the inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry method (ICP-MS) plus C,H,N,S elements identified by means of the chromatographic method (CHNS-analysis), data has been obtained for further research into bottom sediment pollution extent. A comparison of concentration factors for 24 environmentally relevant elements made it possible to split the elements under research into three groups, depending on the lowest/highest content anomalies of those elements in the sediments. Environmental and geochemical anomalies in the water storage reservoir’s bottom sediments have been detected based on the analysis of the resulting dataset.

Keywords: bottom sediments, CHNS analysis, ICP-МS analysis, Ivankovo Water Storage Reservoir, sediment composition

p. 147-153 /

Scherbina G.H.
Ayuushsuren Ch.

Ecology and fauna review of the macroinvertebrates in lake Ulaagchni Char

The species composition, distribution, frequency of occurrence, and abundance of bottom macroinvertebrates at different depths have been studied in Lake Ulaagchny Khar. A total of 44 taxa have been recorded in the macrozoobenthos of the lake; of them chironomids and leeches are the most represented, 28 and five species, respectively. A brief ecological characteristic of the found species is given. It is found that in 2012 and 2013, chironomid larvae played a crucial role in the waterbody in respect to species richness and quantitative development. In 2011, Gammarus lacustris prevailed by biomass in the littoral and profundal parts of the lake.

Keywords: abundance, biomass, distribution, Lake Ulaagchny Khar, macroinvertebrates, occurrence

p. 12-17 /

Zubarev V.A.
Bebeshko T.V.

Hydrochemistry of the Bastak River of the «Bastak» State Nature Reserve

The ecological state of the river is estimated «Bastak», flowing through the territory of the State Nature Reserve «Bastak», on the content of heavy metals, dissolved oxygen and suspended substances in surface waters in different phases of the hydrological regime. It is shown that the content of heavy metals, suspended and organic substances is determined by the characteristics of surface runoff from catchments. According to the calculation of the water pollution index, the surface waters of the Bastak River are classified as clean, which confirms the uniqueness of these natural waters and requires special protection and rational nature management.

Keywords: dissolved oxygen, heavy metals, reserve, river, water quality

p. 18-31 /

Motovilov Yu.G.
Faschevskaya T.B.

Spatially distributed model of the heavy metals flow formation in the river basin

Based on the ECOMAG software complex a model was first developed that describes the spatiotemporal regularities of the heavy metals chemical runoff formation in the components of the geosystem of a large river basin (on the surface, in soils, groundwater and river waters) for example of copper flow from the Nizhnekamsk reservoir catchment. The simulated results are compared with data from hydrological and hydrochemical observations. An assessment of the contribution of various natural and anthropogenic constituents to the formation of hydrochemical copper runoff was carried out. Using the model, calculations of the fields of perennial norms of water flow and copper chemical flow were performed.

Keywords: genetic components of hydrochemical flow, heavy metals, modeling, modulus of water and chemical flow of copper, river basin

p. 32-40 /

Robertus Yu.V.
Sitnikova V.A.
Kivackaya A.V.

Features of macro- and microchemical composition of the sediment runoff of the Upper Ob nearthe Gorno-Altaysk

Relevance of the work is caused by need to necessity of studying and monitoring the status of small rivers of the Upper Ob basin, which exposed to many years of intensive anthropogenic impact. The main aim of the study is the analysis of hydrochemical characteristics of macro - and microelement composition of sediment runoff in the town of Gorno-Altaysk, as the most urbanized area of the Altai Republic. The methods used in the study: a representative sample of the river water of the district, the determination of contents of 71 chemical elements by the method of mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma and methods of chemical analysis of 15 components (indicators) of salt composition of waters, processing and interpretation of the obtained data methods of applied statistics, factor and cluster analysis. Data on the levels of a large complex of trace elements in river waters near the town of Gorno-Altaysk was first obtained. Their comparison with the regional background, Clarke, environmental regulations was conducted. The increase of their concentrations in the water of the rivers of higher order, due to the increased role of geological formations in the formation of chemical composition of water was established. An inverse relationship between the length of the watercourse and the difference between the content of trace elements in the source and the mouth were identified. A small increase in the content of components in the chemical composition of water and most of the trace elements within industrial-residential agglomerations city of Gorno-Altaysk was revealed. Conclusions of the prevailing role of natural factors in the formation of the hydrochemical characteristics of the channel drain of the district and of improving its environmental quality from small rivers to large rivers were made.

Keywords: chemical composition, features of the distribution, Gorno-Altaysk, microelements, runoff river flow

p. 41-48 /

Kulakov D.V.

Zooplankton of rivers of hydrographic water basin of the Koporye bay (the gulf of Finland)

Zooplankton studies were accomplished in 2012-2015, and the appraisal water quality of the rivers the Sista, the Voronka and the Kovashi, related to the catchment area of the Koporye Bay of the Gulf of Finland (Leningrad region) was evaluated. The sampling stations were located in the estuary area and in the middle reach of the rivers.
The zooplankton of the watercourses included 61 taxon of the species and subspecies ranks (in the Sista – 43, in the Voronka – 29, in the Kovashi – 56 species and subspecies), it was typical of the reservoirs of the Northwest of Russia and it is represented mainly by eurybiontic species with high ecological plasticity. The largest values of abundance (N) and biomass (B) of zooplankton were found at the mouth of river the Kovashi (N = 2996,1 ind./m3 and B = 19,4 mg/m3), the smallest – in the middle reaches of river the Voronka (N = 178,3 ind./m3 and B = 0,1 mg/m3). In all rivers Rotifera was represented by the largest number of species. In the seasonal dynamics of the taxonomic structure from spring to autumn the share of Rotifera was decreased due to the development of Cladocera.
The trophic status of watercourses varied from eutrophic to hypereutrophic. The highest values of the trophicity coefficient (E) were found in the Sista (E = 5,1). According to the saprobity index (S) the waters of the rivers belonged to the β-mesosaprobic zone, the exception of the station located in the middle reaches of the river characterized by oligosaprobic conditions.

Keywords: Kovashi, river, Sista, Voronka, water quality assessment, zooplankton

p. 49-54 /

Novikova Yu.V.
Zmetnaya M.I.
Studenov I.I.
Makedonskaya I.Yu.

Calculation of P/B coefficient and characteristic of phytoplankton quantitative indicators for some water objects of the taiga zone in the Arkhangelsk region

The article presents researching phytoplankton quantitative indicators of water bodies of the taiga zone in the Arkhangelsk region. Importance of studying these indicators for calculating the extent of harm to water bodies was proved. Complex of dominant species was studied. Abundance, biomass, chlorophyll a and primary production of phytoplankton in some water bodies of the Arkhangelsk region were calculated. Statistical processing of phytoplankton quantitative indices was shown. In the lake Bolshoe Okunkovo abundance and biomass of phytoplankton were in the range 60,67 - 706,37×106 cells/m3, and 365,7 - 5559,2 µg/L respectively. Primary production in the average for growing season was 97,8 mg С/m3×d. In the delta of the Northern Dvina river in Kuznechikha duct abundance and biomass of phytoplankton were in the range 17,76 – 784,76×106 cells/m3, and 322,4 - 3354,9 µg/L respectively. Primary production in the average for growing season was 83,4 mg С/m3×d. Based on the obtained values of primary production we have for the first time found the daily P/B coefficient of phytoplankton for the studying region. Daily P/B coefficients of the lake Bolshoe Okunkovo and Kuznechikha duct were in the range 1,6 - 2,0 and 1,8 - 2,2 respectively. The maximum values of the P/B coefficient for these water bodies were noted at the beginning and end of the growing season. The found range of values of daily P/B coefficient of phytoplankton was at the level of values given for the studied geographical zone in available literature sources.

Keywords: Arkhangelsk region, chlorophyll a, P/B coefficient, phytoplankton, primary production

p. 55-61 /

Savelev S.N.
Saveleva A.V.
Biktagirov A.E.
Fridland S.V.

Research of the purification of sulfide-alkaline sewage and copper-containing spent galvanic solutions by chemical methods

Kinetic curves of oxidation of components of sulphite-alkaline wastewater with an ozone-air mix-ture and air oxygen were obtained and the degree of purification according to the value of chemical oxygen consumption was 79.8 and 78.4%, respectively.
The expediency of joint purification of sulphite-alkaline wastewater and copper-containing spent galvanic solutions is shown as a result of which practically complete removal of sulfide ions and copper (II) ions occurs by their binding as a water insoluble precipitate.
The effect of different concentrations of copper (II) ions on the intensity of oxidation of pollutants of mixed wastewater with air oxygen and an ozone-air mixture was studied.
The optimum conditions for purification of sulphurous alkali wastewater using copper-containing spent galvanic solutions as catalysts were used-the oxidation of pollutants by an ozone-air mixture containing 400 mg / l copper (II) ions, which allowed after 30 minutes of bubbling the degree of pu-rification wastewater by the value of COD 88.6 %.

Keywords: copper ions (II), oxidation, oxygen from the air, ozone-air mixture, sulphides

p. 62-67 /

Sazonov D.V.
Antonova E.S.

The selection of aeration system for the flotation treatment of different kinds of water

The parameters that influence on the efficiency of flotation water treatment are considered. It is shown that pneumatic-hydraulic system of aeration can generate bubbles in a range 30-200 µm. The experiments on the definition of size of bubbles that form particle-bubble aggregates with different kinds of contamination and their rising velocities are carried out on a laboratory set-up. It is confirmed that bubbles of different size are needed for the water treatment from different contaminations. It is pointed out that flocculant influences on the increase of bubbles size from 65 µm to 75 µm and decrease of rising velocity to 3 mm/s. The comparison of the synthetic wastewater treatment efficiencies with the use of centrifugal and vortex pumps is presented. It is shown that the use of centrifugal pump is reasonable for the flotation of contaminations which form particle-bubble aggregates with small range of bubbles sizes. The treatment efficiency is 77 % with the use of centrifugal pump and 61 % with the use of vortex pump.

Keywords: flotation, particle-bubble aggregate, pneumatic-hydraulic system of aeration, rising velocity, water treatment

p. 68-79 /

Kurashov E.A.
Krylova Yu.V.
Egorova A.A.
Hamitov A.S.
Hodonovich V.V.
Yavid E.Ya.

Prospects for using of low molecular weight organic compounds of aquatic macrophytes for indication of ecological state of water ecosystems

Metabonomics of aquatic macrophytes is a scientific direction poorly developed in Russia. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using small-molecule metabolome (SM) of aquatic macrophytes for indication of ecological state of water ecosystems. The main research method of the study is gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is shown that the formation of SM of aquatic plants occurs as a result of their active interaction with the environment, while the influence of both biotic and abiotic factors, including anthropogenic ones, is important. Certain regularities associated with the reaction of water macrophytes to anthropogenic press have been identified. Indicative signs of SM in several species of freshwater macrophytes, which allow to detect anthropogenic disturbance of the biotope are disclosed. A new integral method for evaluation of the stability of the state of aquatic ecosystems based on the analysis of SM of macrophytes growing in them is proposed.

Keywords: anthropogenic impact, Aquatic ecosystems, aquatic macrophytes, ecological state, low-molecular weight organic compounds, small-molecule metabolite profiles. gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry, small-molecule metabolome

p. 80-93 /

Artemev S.N.
Novoselov A.P.
Klimovskii N.V.

The state of macrozoobenthos in the dvina bay of the white sea under conditions of pollution of bottom sediments by oil products

The quantitative indices (number and biomass) of the zoobenthic communities of the Dvina Bay of the White Sea and the content of oil products (ZV) in the bottom sediments (DO) of the considered aquatorium are presented. The composition and the quantitative indices of the macrozoobenthos differ significantly in different parts of the kutovaya, in the main and the marine parts of the Dvina Bay. The dependence of the characteristics of the main groups of zoobenthos on the content of petroleum hydrocarbons in the bottom sediments has been assessed. With an increase in the concentration of the pollutant (NP), there is a slight decrease in both the biomass and the number of zoobenthos.

Keywords: bottom sediments, number and biomass of the macrozoobenthos, oil products, The Dvina Bay, the White Sea

p. 94-100 /

Linnikov O.D.

About expediency of application of multistage sorption for purification of the polluted solutions

Two possible options of carrying out sorption purification of the polluted solutions are analysed. The first - traditional (and the most widespread) when cleaning of undesirable impurity is made for one stage by introduction to the purified solution sufficient for the required depth of cleaning of quantity of a sorbent. The second - multistage (multistage) cleaning at which the polluted solution is purified of undesirable impurity in several stages due to consecutive introduction to it of small portions of a sorbent with the subsequent its separation from solution and addition after that in the same solution of a new portion of a sorbent. At the same time it is supposed that in solution between undesirable impurity and a sorbent there is the adsorptive balance described by Langmuir and Henry's equations.
It is shown that in at quite high concentration of undesirable impurity in solution when process of adsorption can be described by Langmuir's equation, there are practically no distinctions in efficiency when carrying out process of sorption for one or several stages. Depth of cleaning and the general expense of a sorbent at the same time are almost identical. However at purification of solutions with low concentration of the polluting impurity when process of adsorption of impurity on a surface of a sorbent is described by Henry's equation, multistage sorption has advantages. At such organization of sorption process the greatest efficiency and the smallest expense of sorbents is reached. Besides, only this way allows to carry out deep purification of solutions of undesirable impurity.
The equations allowing to calculate theoretically quantity of steps of cleaning and concentration of a sorbent at each step for achievement of the required depth of purification of solution of the impurity polluting it are received.

Keywords: adsorption, cleaning of water, equation of Langmuir, sorption