scientific journal
  • ISSN 2072-8158
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  • Rospechat: 48626
  • Russian Press: 44722

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology» № 11 (113) за November 2017 г.</H3>

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology»

№ 11 (113) за November 2017 г.

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p. 113-118 /

Garkusheva N.M.
Popova S.A.
Zagibalova K.M.
Matafonova G.G.
Batoev V.B.

Water treatment and disinfection by natural solar radiation in ferrous-persulfate system

A task of simultaneous treatment and disinfection of natural water and municipal wastewater effluents using solar-induced advanced oxidation processes was considered in this study. Using herbicide atrazine and Escherichia coli, the kinetics of both separate and simultaneous processes of destruction and inactivation in different aqueous matrices (deionized water — DW, natural water — NW and treated wastewater — TWW) were studied in the ferrous-persulfate system, activated with natural solar radiation {Solar/Fe2+/S2O82-}. It was found, that the presence of bacterial cells inhibited the rate of atrazine destruction in all matrices, decreasing the rate constants by one order of magnitude. The accumulated solar doses (QUVА) for 90% atrazine removal in DW, NW and TWW were 5,2, 5,7 and 9,2 kJ/L, respectively. In contrast, the presence of atrazine in NW and TWW did not affect negatively on the E. coli inactivation rates. Inactivation of 95% cells was achieved (~1.5 log reduction) at doses QUVА of 4-6 kJ/L, that is comparable with the literature data on E. coli inactivation in other oxidation systems. The combined method of simultaneous destruction of micropollutants and inactivation of microbial pathogens has been proposed by using natural solar radiation in the ferrous-persulfate system {Solar/Fe2+/S2O82-}.

Keywords: diinfection, natural and wastewater, solar radiation, treatment

p. 119-124 /

Kruglikov V.D.
Levchenko D.A.
Titova S.V.
Arhangelskaya I.V.
Vodopyanov A.S.
Nepomnyaschaya N.B.
Ezhova M.I.
Gaevskaya N.E,
Kvasov A.R.

Pcr analysis of genotypes of V. cholerae О1, once detected in surface waters on the territory of Russia

The work is devoted to the study using the GIS, integrated into the geoinformation portal of the Rostov-on-Don Anti-plague Institute of Rospotrebnadzor. V. cholerae strains, which were singled out once during from 1989 to 2016 of environment water objects in the territory of the Russian Federation and to determine genotypes. Genotyping was carried out by PCR method to detect 14 genes. Twelve strains were selected that relate only to O1 serogroup V. cholerae El Tor: of them: 10 strains were typical for generic and species properties, and two strains were identified as atypical — V. cholerae R-variant. It was established that strains of selected atoxigenic strains of O1 Vibrio cholerae during the period under study were found once in five federal districts of Russia, nine administrative territories and nine environment water objects. The genotypes of the selected strains B8-B10 and E10 are determined. The genotypic characteristics of strains with their persistent potential and the possibility of experiencing in aquatic ecosystems up to several years are discussed. It was shown that strains of
V. cholerae O1 with genotype B8, along with strains having a different genotypic characteristic, were distinguished from 1998 of environment water objects in different parts of the country, but also once, which indicated their importunate nature and the impossibility of a long experience in a temperate climate. It was noted that strains of V. cholerae O1 with unique genotypes of B9 and E10 were not found before and aſter in the territories of subjects of the Russian Federation. Thus, the use of the author’s GIS with the possibility of reflecting the results of PCR-genotyping helps to increase the effectiveness of scientific and methodological support for monitoring studies within the framework of cholera surveillance in the territory of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: aquatic objects of the environment, ecology, genotype, geoinformational system, Vibrio cholerae

p. 20-27 /

Verkhozina E.V.
Safarov A.S.
Makuhin V.L.
Verkhozina V.A.

Modeling emissions of solid particles in thermal power companies central ecological zone of the Baikal natural territory

To assess the level of air pollution in the Central ecological zone of the Baikal natural territory is investigated using a mathematical model. It is based on the numerical solution of the semiempirical equation of turbulent diffusion. It is shown that the proposed model takes into account terrain and changes in meteorological conditions. This allows to simulate the distribution of emissions depending on changes in weather conditions. The use of this model prospectively in monitoring observations and obtaining reasonable predictions.

Keywords: assessment of emissions, enterprises of power engineering, mapping, monitoring, numerical modelling, solid suspension

p. 125-139 /

Polyak Yu.M.
Suharevich V.I.

Toxic cyanobacteria: their occurrence, regulation of toxin production and control

This review synthesizes the current state of knowledge regarding toxic cyanobacteria, their geographic distribution, and ecology. The increased intensity of cyanobacterial blooms all over the world causes fears due to ability of many cyanobacteria to produce toxins. Microcystins are a group of hepatotoxins being the most pervasive and dangerous cyanotoxins. They are highly toxic to humans, animals, and zooplankton. The review provides evidence for the role of environmental factors in regulation of toxin production. The key role of both nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as the effect of light, temperature, and chemical substances are highlighted. Despite of intensive research, there are still a number of open questions regarding the mechanisms of toxin production, their role in cyanobacteria metabolism and natural processes.
Nowadays, a number of physico-chemical procedures for removal of toxins are proposed, but due to their economic and environmental characteristics, the problem of developing more efficient and environmentally friendly methods remains to be solved. One such method that has received widespread attention is the application of biological treatment, based on the ability of microorganisms to biodegradation of cyanotoxins.

Keywords: biodegradation, cyanobacteria, hepatotoxins, microcystin, toxicity

p. 3-13 /

Koreneva T.G.
Shevchenko G.V.
Maryzhihin V.E.
Latkovskaya E.M.
Chastikov V.N.
Kirillov K.V.
Kovalev P.D.
Huzeeva M.O.
Vedernikova A.A.
Repina M.A.
Zavarzin D.S.

Results of environmental conditions research in the area tanker «Nadezda» accident (coastal waters of the tatar strait near southwestern Sakhalin)

Based on the results of comprehensive studies conducted between December 2015 and June 2016, an assessment of the extent of the coastal zone of south-western Sakhalin, which was polluted, was estimated at about 13 km, including the port area and the coastal strip within the city of Nevelsk. The distribution of oil products towards the coast and in the south direction was facilitated by the predominance of the N and NW winds during and aſter the accident. In the coastal zone, the highest content of oil products in sea water (up to 378 MACs) was recorded immediately aſter the accident. Already in mid- December, a significant reduction in the level of water pollution was recorded, a more gradual decrease continued throughout the observation period. The mass fraction of the oil pollution in the littoral sediments, on the contrary, increased significantly in May-June, due to the migration of heavy oil fractions deposited to the bottom under the influence of frequent storms. In the deep-sea part of the Tatar Strait, oil pollution of water and bottom sediments was absent.

Keywords: hydrochemical parameters, oil spill, South-Western coast of Sakhalin Island, Tatar Strait, wind-induced waves

p. 140-145 /

Sharov A.V.
Bikmuhametova R.R.

The aminated sorbent, obtained from pinecones of the pinus silvestris, sorption properties

The porosity, group composition of the surface, phenol sorption on aminated carbons, obtained from pinecones, are investigated. Pyrolysis and activation were carried out in the one stage by heating of the plant material, previously soaked in the phosphoric acid. The amination process was carried out by heating of the sample in a current of dry ammonia at an elevated temperature. It was found that modification with nitrogen-containing groups occurs predominantly in the mesopores. The major part of the nitrogen-containing surface groups belongs to the amino groups, possibly the presence of the pyridine nitrogen and the amide groups. The sorption experiment showed that the obtained carbons are promising sorbents for the binding from the acid pollutants both from the point of view of the sorption capacity and from the point of view of the prevalence of raw materials for their production. The sorption capacity of the aminated sorbents with respect to phenol is 434 mg/g.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption isotherms, amination, sorption capacity, surface groups

p. 14-19 /

Usova E.V.
Orehova Yu.V.
Vorobev E.V.

Seasonal fluctuations of content of sulfates in the Mius and Krynka rivers during 2007-2016 years

The cross-border rivers are an object which is difficult for studying, and it demands to carry out the analysis not only for the polluting components, but also for geographical features, for specifics of economic activity.
In article natural and anthropogenic factors which determine the high content of sulfates in the cross-border Mius and Krynka Rivers taking into account features of the region of location of these rivers are considered. Dynamics of pollution of the rivers is presented by sulfates and the dependence on season is revealed on the basis of data of monitoring from 2007 to 2016. Pollution has annual frequency which depends both on natural factors, and on the coal industry characteristic of Donbass.
Communication of annual change of concentration of sulfates with dynamics of sodium and also correlation with concentration of fluorides in the Mius River is revealed. It allows to consider that the main source of pollution is mine waters Donbass. Also sources of sulfates are to the kisloyena rains, washing away of sulfates from soils.
Recommendations for the detailed analysis and reduction of the considered type of pollution are provided in the conclusion of article.

Keywords: analysis of pollution of the river, composition of water, cross-border rivers, dynamics of pollution of the rivers, influence of mine waters, Krynka River, Mius River, monitoring of the rivers, pollution by sulfates

p. 146-153 /

Dudakova D.S.
Svetov S.A.

Study of microelement composition of lake Ladoga freshwater mollusks’ shells with use LA-ICP-MS method

The information about the chemical composition of the shells of the mollusks of Lake Ladoga is scarce and is known mainly for heavy metals. Obtaining new data on it with use of modern precise methods of analysis of the shells’ substance and the extension of the investigated elements number is very important. In our study we investigated a broad range of trace elements (34 elements) contained in the shells of bivalves of Lake Ladoga Anadonta cygnea and Unio pictorum, with the aim to establish patterns of trace elements accumulation in the shells of freshwater mollusks. We used the method of mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma with use of laser ablation (LA-ICP-MS). The results showed the specificity of the composition of shells: the high content of strontium, barium and manganese, which are capable isomorphically replace calcium in calcite and aragonite of shells; the difference from carbonate rocks; low correlation of most of the elements with the chemistry of the bottom grounds in which the mollusks live; lack of heavy metals bioconcentration (except copper and nickel) in relation to grounds. However, the difference in pollution levels in different parts of the Lake affects the chemistry of Ladoga Bivalvias, which allows their use in bioindication purposes. The differences in accumulation of some trace elements depend on the species of mollusk. Al, Sr, Mn, Ba, Zn, Sn and Sb concentrations were higher in Anadonta cygnea compared to Unio pictorum, whereas for Zr, Tl, and La. It has been established that for Sr, Ba and most part of heavy metals, except Ni, there is a decrease in concentration in the shells with age in mollusks. For most elements, the highest concentration observed for the inner layer — hypostracum. A small group of substances has a high concentration in the outer layer — periostracum. The data obtained give an idea about the biochemistry of the mollusk fauna of Lake Ladoga, factors influencing it and indicate the perspectivity of using LA-ICP-MS for analysis of the shells chemical composition.

Keywords: LA-ICP-MS analysis, Ladoga Lake, microelements, mollusks shells

p. 28-35 /

Levin E.V.
Galyanina N.P.
Stepanov A.S.

Radon in the underground drinking water of the Orenburg region (methods of disposal)

A large part of the territory of the Russian Federation is subject to potential radon hazard. In Russia, the level of radon content in groundwater ranges from 10 to 100 Bq/l, and only in some areas reaching up to hundreds and even thousands of Bq/l. In many cases the groundwater with radioactivity, are the only source of drinking water for hundreds of small towns of Russia. As shown, the survey of underground water sources in the Orenburg region the radon content in the water exceeds the norm. Radioactive contamination caused by the presence in water of radioactive gas radon and its isotopes, which can cause cancer. OOO «Scientific research and design Institute of environmental problems» together with the Department of heat and gas supply, ventilation and hydromechanics, Orenburg state University are working on designing an automated hardware system of water purification from radon in water towers Rozhnovsky. Studied version of the technical solutions of drinking water purification from radioactive radon gas in the water tower Rozhnovskogo by means of titanium aerators. This aeration helps to reduce the concentration of radon in dozens of times. The decision of a question on removal of radon from water is a vital task of reducing the threat of radiation exposure and the risk of occurrence of oncological diseases of the population.

Keywords: aeration, drinking water, malignant neoplasms, radon 222, Rozhnovsky tower

p. 36-41 /

Gureeva E.V.

The content of fucoxanthin, copper and zinc in brown seaweed of the Black sea

Pigment of brown algae fucoxanthin possesses high antioxidant activity and perspective for use as a component of antitumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity drugs. Raw material from which was isolated fucoxanthin mainly extracted from the waters of the Japan Sea, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Therefore, the goal of the work was to investigate the content of fucoxanthin, copper and zinc in the mass species of brown algae of the Black Sea. The pigment content was determined by TLC, heavy metals — by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The highest concentration of copper and zinc was detected in Cystoseira barbata. Is given a comparative characteristics of pigment and metal content in different types of brown algae. It was found that the fucoxanthin content in 4 species of Black Sea brown algae has a similar values with pigment concentrations in different algae species from other water areas. Thus, Black Sea brown algae can be considered as a potential crude for extraction of fucoxanthin. Among them Cystoseira C. Agardh are the most spread species of upper sublittoral of the Black Sea.

Keywords: Black Sea, brown algae, fucoxanthin, heavy metals

p. 42-51 /

Moreva O.A.
Klevakin A.A.
Loginov V.V.
Krivdina T.V.
Postnov D.I.
Postnov I.E.

Fish population of the Alatyr river and its connection with the hydrochemical composition of waters

The article presents information on the fish population and the hydrochemical characteristics of the Alatyr River, a tributary of the Sura River (the Cheboksary reservoir basin). This information is published for the first time. The purpose of the study was to study the condition of the fish population of the Alatyr River in different sections of the current, to identify the relationship between the characteristics of the ichthyofauna and the hydrochemical indicators. The river was surveyed from the source to the mouth at 10 sites, where an ichthyological survey was performed and samples of water were taken for hydrochemical analysis. It was revealed that the investigated sections of the upper, middle and lower reaches of the river. Alatyr differ in a whole complex of hydrochemical and ichthyological data, but one can not speak of a direct relationship between the hydrochemical indexes and the structural features of the ichthyofauna of different sections of the watercourse. There is a tendency to reduce the number of fish and increase species richness from the upper to the lower stream. A species of fish (gorchak), recorded in the Red Books of the Nizhny Novgorod Region and the Chuvash Republic, was discovered.

Keywords: fish community, fish population, ichthyofauna, small river, the river Alatyr

p. 52-60 /

Dan E.L.
Butenko E.O.
Kapustin A.E.
Voloshin V.S.

Problems and prospects analysis of heavy industry enterprises liquid waste storages liquidation

This review article is devoted to the actual problem of heavy industry enterprises liquid waste storages eliminating. The heavy industry of Ukraine is the main source of environmental pollution. Pollutants enter water bodies mainly with insufficiently purified sewages, as well as through contact with liquid industrial wastes storages. At the present time, the issue of liquidation, neutralization or modernization of storages is sharply raised. It is connected with the wear and tear of protective devices and their long operation. As a result, harmful substances are filtered into groundwater, which subsequently affects the ecological state of soils and nearby water bodies. At the same time, the state of water bodies directly affects not only human health, but also the environment state as a whole. Despite of this problem urgency, there is not enough research and literary base for an optimal and qualitative solution of this issue in Ukraine and other CIS countries. The interest is not only the process of eliminating storages, but also the substances recycling in them. The article describes metallurgical wastewater storages liquidation vector (for example, in Mariupol, Ukraine).

Keywords: ecology, industry, storage, waste water, wastes

p. 61-66 /

Dremicheva E.S.

Application of peat for water treatment from petroleum products

The results of sorption treatment of waste water from oil products are presented. The process of sorption of dissolved and emulsified petroleum products under static conditions using peat from various deposits was studied. As a research object, samples of the peat (from the Sosnovoye deposit) and the lowland (Chistoe deposit) peat from the deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan were taken. The estimation of oil capacity was made according to technical conditions, and the residual content of oil products in waste water aſter contact with peat — in accordance with state standard. The optimal sorption time, the maximum capacity of the sorbent for oil products and the retention capacity are determined. The possibility of intensifying sorption purification by various methods, such as increasing and lowering the temperature, creating turbulence, adding various reagents and changing the pH of the medium, is considered. Based on the above studies, it is recommended to expand the range of existing sorbents and the area of use of man-made materials.

Keywords: intensification, lowland and riding peats, oil products, wastewater treatment

p. 67-72 /

Vorobeva O.V.
Kravcova G.V.

The use of zooplankton and zoobenthos organisms to assess biological effects of the helium-neon laser radiation

The effect of the visible electromagnetic radiation on freshwater zoobenthos and zooplankton organisms was studied. The research was carried out on the crustaceans Daphnia magna Straus and mollusсs Planorbella duryi which are known to be sensitive test-organisms for studding the effects of chemicals (bioassays). A helium-neon laser (λ = 632.8 nm, 20 mW power, radiation intensity — 0.45 mW/cm2, exposure time 2-1 000 s) was used as an irradiation source.
The effect of irradiation on the survival and fecundity of irradiated daphnia and their unirradiated offspring up to the third generation was studied. It was shown that a single irradiation of one-day-old crustaceans caused a decrease in the linear body size over the dose range studied. At doses of 9 and 18 mJ/cm2 the inhibitory effect on the reproductive function of daphnia was observed.
In the entire range of applied doses visible irradiation had no statistically significant influence on the percentage of mollusks exited from the egg clutches but reliably inhibited the mollusk embryonic development.
Daphnia are a more sensitive object for detecting the effects of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range than mollusk’s clutches, since they react to lower radiation doses.

Keywords: Daphnia magna, fecundity, helium-neon laser, hydrobionts, irradiation, Planorbella duryi, rate of embryonic development, survival

p. 73-79 /

Dyogtev M.I.
Soloveva Yu.V.
Strunkina E.I.
Basov A.V.

The principles of extraction of dichromate-anions with antipirin and its derivatives in chloroform from chloride and sulfurone solutions

The extraction of macroquantities of dichromate ions from solutions of HCl and H2SO4 with antipyrine and its derivatives, 2–diantipyrylalkanes into chloroform, has been studied. Optimal conditions for the quantitative extraction of Cr2O72- from HCl solutions in the presence of 0.1 M antipyrine and its derivatives were determined: 0.1 M diantipyrylmethane, ethyl, propyl, hexyl-dianthipylmethanes. The complete extraction of dichromate ions is observed in the case of diantipyryl alkanes from H2SO4 solutions. Diantypyrilmethane extracts dichromate anions by no more than 80%. The most effective was a mixture of 0,15 M H2SO4 and 0,3 M NaCl (KCl), which selectively and quantitatively provides the extraction of anions by chloroform solutions 2-
from antipyrine and its derivatives. The isotherms of extraction of Cr2O72- for all reagents are constructed, the composition of recoverable complexes is established. A complex RH[CrO3Cl] is extracted from the chloride solutions, and (RH)2[Cr2O7] from the sulfurates. The absorption spectra of the complexes are presented, a method has been developed for the selective isolation and determination of dichromate ions in chromium-containing sludge.

Keywords: antipyrine, chloroform, diantipyrilalkanes, dichromate anions, extraction, hydrochloric and sulfuric acids

p. 80-87 /

Barsova N.Yu.
Motuzova G.V.
Kocharyan A.G.
Gusev E.M.

Estimation of copper sorption and migration parameters to be used in modeling transport of metals in soils of Ivankovsky water reservoir catchment area

All models of transport and sorption of chemicals substances in soils use their sorption and migration parameters. We use two laboratory methods to determine sorption parameters for copper of two horizons of soddy-podzolic soil of Upper Volga region. We obtain sorption isotherm for Cu under static conditions and extract curves for Cl, Ca, and Cu dynamic conditions conducted in column experiments with disturbed and undisturbed soil specimens.
Under static conditions sorption capacity for Cu of upper soddy horizon A is 2 times higher than that of lower sandy horizon B. However, under dynamic conditions higher infiltration rate of coarser structure of upper soil horizon than that of lower mineral horizon reduces this gap in sorption capacity.
The results of sequential extraction show that copper is sorbed tighter in horizon A than in B. Thus, sorption parameters of soils for heavy metals obtained by different methods give valuable information. To predict transport of pollutants from soils into adjacent media a mathematical model must take into account soil structure and its hydraulic properties.

Keywords: copper, migration, soil water catchment, sorption

p. 88-92 /

Temirhanov B.A.
Sultygova Z.H.
Archakova R.D.
Ozdoeva H.S.
Didigova L.A.
Yandieva M.S.
Evloeva A.Ya.
Uzhahova L.Ya.
Bokova L.M.

The study of surface waters of the republic of Ingushetia

This work is a continuation of the study of the condition of surface and underground waters of the Republic of Ingushetia (RI) and is directed at the study of water quality of one of the main rivers of the Republic of Ingushetia, namely, the river Assa, flowing not only on the territory of Ingushetia, but on the territory of Georgia and Chechnya. This river has a great importance for the population of many mountain villages of the Sunzha district of Ingushetia, because it is used not only for technical purposes in an agriculture but also for drinking. So it is important to know not only the organoleptic properties and chemical composition but also a sanitary-hygienic indicators. This problem is relevant at the regional level and it is necessary component of environmental monitoring. In this work the determination of heavy metals content and cation-anionic composition of the water of the river Assa is carried out. It is shown that this water can be used for technical purposes, but is not fit for drinking without advance preparation.

Keywords: Assa, cationic and anionic composition, heavy metals, monitoring, MPC, organoleptic characteristics, physical and chemical indicators, quality mountain part, Republic of Ingushetia, river, Sunja district, water

p. 94-104 /

Dolmatova L.A.

Chemical composition and water quality of lakes in hollows of ancient runoff in the south of Western Siberia (Altai krai)

Based on the data for 2007-2017, the chemical composition of water and the ecological state of lowland lakes in the hollows of ancient runoff in the South of Western Siberia is studied. It is shown that the lakes’ water under study (46 objects) have different ionic composition, salinity and quality.
The predominant type of water is soda (sodium bicarbonate). Growth of mineralization and accumulation of nutrients in lakes is subject to the law of geographical zonality. The lakes of the southern forest-steppe demonstrate higher maxima of mineralization and the content of mineral nitrogen and phosphorus than the lakes of the northern forest-steppe.
A retrospective analysis of data for the last 60 years revealed that, due to increasing climate aridity typical for the South of Western Siberia, the lakes’ salinity increased several times, and the ionic composition of water changed.
The ecological state of the lakes investigated is different. In most lakes, water refers to «slightly polluted» (20) and
«moderately polluted» (12) categories. Hence, the lakes’ trophicity changes from «oligomesotrophic» to «polytrophic».

Keywords: biogenic and organic matters, hollows of ancient runoff, salinity, trophicity, water quality

p. 105-112 /

Valiev V.S.
Ivanov D.V.
Shagidullin R.R.

Assessment of nutrient levels in surface waters using probabilistic statistics

The data of long-term hydrochemical monitoring of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the waters of the Kuibyshev reservoir and its tributaries within the Republic of Tatarstan are analyzed using the method of probabilistic estimations. Based on the results of calculation of Bayesian probabilities of exceeding the median levels of nutrient concentration, a relative assessment of water quality was performed without using standard threshold characteristics (maximal available concentration). The probabilistic approach makes it possible to calculate the magnitude of the risk of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by various chemical compounds, which is important for predicting and assessing the dynamics of pollution in time and space.

Keywords: biogenic elements, Kuibyshev reservoir, methods of probability statistics, seasonal dynamics