scientific journal
  • ISSN 2072-8158
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  • Rospechat: 48626
  • Russian Press: 44722

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology» № 10 (112) за October 2017 г.</H3>

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology»

№ 10 (112) за October 2017 г.

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p. 3-10 / Ecology issues

Klimovskii N.V.
Novoselov A.P.
Chernova V.G.
Petrakova I.V.

Accumulation of pollutants by bottom sediments in the Dvina Gulf of the White Sea

Investigations have been carried out to determine the intensity of accumulation of pollutants by bottom sediments in the Dvina Gulf of the White Sea. Analysis of the data obtained showed that the highest concentrations of pollutants, such as petroleum hydrocarbons, benz (a) pyrene, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd, were found in the central part of the bay. At the same time, the intensity of accumulation of pollutants depends on the type of bottom sediments. The results of the study showed that the accumulation of pollutants depends on the mineralogical composition of bottom sediments. At the same time, there is a tendency to accumulation in clayey mud and clay for all types of pollutants. As for the heavy metals, it was managed to determine the order of decrease in their concentrations in bottom sediments, having the following form: for sand and clay sand Zn> Pb> Cu> Cd, for clay silt and clay Zn> Cu> Pb> Cd. In general, the greatest potential for the accumulation of pollutants is found on mud and clay grounds, since silt deposits have a greater sorption surface and the ability to retain sorbed substances. Sandy and sandy-clay bottom substrates are characterized by the lowest accumulating capacity.

Keywords: benzo(a)pyrene, Dvinsky Bay, heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, sediments

p. 11-17 / Ecology issues

Pastuhov M.V.
Poletaeva V.I.
Dolgih P.G.

Specifics of hydrochemical regime formation at the Ust-Ilimsk water reservoir

The study presents an analysis of spatial concentration dynamics of HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ as well as an analysis of water mineralization in the Ust-Ilimsk reservoir. Stability of the ion composition in the reservoir depends on the inflow of water that enters through the mouth of reservoir and determines its hydro-carbon calcium composition. At the same time, there are both natural and anthropogenic factors correlating with fluctuations of the major ions (SO42-, Cl-и Na+) accumulation level in water environment. One such factor is the inflow of highly contaminated water from reservoir's sidearm (river Vihoreva) that has a substantial impact on the hydro-chemical composition of the Vihorev inlet, an active recycling area for elements of technogenic origin. Natural sources of elements' inflow into waters of the Ust-Ilimsk reservoir are related to groundwater in zones of exogenous fracturing and in tectonically weakened zones as well as to mineral waters of the hydro-chemical cap located in the reservoir valley. The impact of groundwater inflows can be estimated based on the increase of the major ions concentration levels in the bottom layers of reservoir's water.

Keywords: major ions, surface water, Ust-Ilimsk water reservoir

p. 18-23 / Water bodies monitoring

Chaus B.Yu.

Representatives of Bdelloidae group from the Rotatoria type as objects of biomonitoring of the rivers of South Ural

The analysis of a possibility of use of microscopic worms of Bdelloidae group from the Rotatoria type for increase in a significance of bioindicator researches is provided in article during environmental monitoring of the rivers of South Ural. Sample drawing of a microzoobenthos and microzooplankton was carried out in regions of 17 state water posts which are on the rivers flowing across the territory of South Ural from 2005 to 2016. Constant, additive and casual types a kolovratok on the studied sections of the rivers of South Ural are for the first time revealed. For creation of correlative and regression models of communications of constancy a kolovratok on alignments with hydrochemical indexes average annual characteristics of content in river waters of compounds of manganese, nickel and iron, oil products, phenols, nitrogen ammoniyny, coppers, zincum, by HPK, BPK5, sulfates, chlorides, a nitrite nitrogen were used. Significant correlative dependences between constancy of a number of species of microscopic animals with hydrochemical indexes are revealed statistically. Regression models for the forecast of constancy of types a kolovratok depending on concentration of the pollyutant who are contained in river
waters are constructed.

Keywords: Bdelloidae group, constancy of types, hydrochemical indexes, Rotatoria type, South Ural

p. 24-29 / Water treatment technologies

Berengarten M.G.
Ivanova A.A.
Bulatov M.A.

Regeneration of the oil contaminated rapid quartz filter by the natural surfactant solutions

The new method of regeneration of rapid fine-grained quartz sand filters is proposed. The rapid filters are used as a major stormwater and wastewater purification apparatus. The method of the rapid sand filter regeneration is surface washing of the contaminated sand by the nature surfactant solution. Gum Arabic is the unique polysaccharide was selected as an active component of the regeneration solution. The detergency of natural surfactants against oil products is described. The efficiency of rapid sand filters regeneration is achieved by treatment of the most contaminated layers of sand filter by the regeneration solution and through the transfer of contaminants to the detergent solution. The experimental results of the regeneration ability determination of gum Arabic solutions are shown. The degree of the contaminated sand regeneration at different concentrations of regeneration solution are determined.

Keywords: backwash, gum Arabic, regeneration of sand filters, surface tension, surfactants

p. 30-36 / Hydrobiology

Ryabushko V.I.
Kozincev A.F.
Toichkin A.M.

Concentration of arsenic in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. 1819 from Crimean Peninsula bays (Black Sea)

Arsenic is one of the toxicants for which standards for maximum permissible concentrations in edible marine organisms have been developed. In view of this, information on the content of arsenic in mussels is essential. The aim of this work is to determine the levels of arsenic concentration in soft tissues and shells of the Mytilus galloprovincialis mussel from different bays of the Crimean Peninsula, as a function of size and age of mollusks. The content of arsenic in the samples is determined using the methods of inversion voltammetry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentration of arsenic in soft tissues and mussel shells increases with individual age and size of mollusks and is well described with a power-law function with high coefficients of determination. In terms of the degree of arsenic contamination of the coastal waters of the Crimean Black Sea coast, the water area of Sevastopol Bay proves to be the least polluted with arsenic. For mollusks living in the waters of Kazach’ya Bay and Cape Chersonese, the seasonality in the accumulation of arsenic in the soft tissues is typical. The maximum concentration of arsenic in the soft tissues of the mussel is three times lower than the maximum permissible concentrations for mollusks.

Keywords: age, arsenic, Black Sea, mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, size

p. 37-44 / Hydrobiology

Otchenash N.G.
Zmetnaya M.I.

Species diversity assessment of the zooplankton community in the Onega Bay of the White Sea in the area of the Kiy Island in 2016

Current status of the zooplankton community is usually estimated using characteristics such as abundance, biomass, the ratio of species groups and species composition, but for a comprehensive analysis of the community, an evaluation based on the classical parameters of species diversity is getting increasingly important. The reason of this fact is that diversity is one of the main measured characteristics, reflecting the complexity of the system. This paper shows zooplankton species diversity of the Onega Bay in the White Sea off the Kiy Island, which was estimated using indices based on relative species abundance of Shannon and Simpson, as well as the indices of species richness of Margalef and Menhinick. The paper also shows ratio of the main taxonomic groups, the evenness measure was calculated and the curve of domination-diversity was described. Subject to the index of species diversity, the obtained values varied significantly from 0,03 (Menhinick's index) to 2,04 (Shannon’s index). It was established that the lower species diversity of the Onega Bay in the White Sea off the Kiy island, the lower values of the evenness measure. By the end of June, species diversity at the stations is decreasing, shifting from “high” towards “medium” and “low” with appropriate indices values, due to the White Sea herring larvae preying on zooplankton. In the community off the Kiy Island, Synchaeta sp. predominates in the middle of June and composes 75 % of the total abundance. By the end of the month, abundance of this species had significantly declined and made up 30% of the total abundance, increasing the number of predominating species.

Keywords: abundance, Indices of species diversity, Onega Bay, species diversity, zooplankton

p. 45-55 / Scientific and analytical reviews

Terehova V.A.
Kydralieva K.A.
Poromov A.A.
Kulyabko L.S.
Uchanov P.V.
Fedoseeva E.V.
James R.A.

Antimicrobial products of nanotechnologies and disinfection of water environments (review)

The unwanted effects of microbial growth caused by long-term use antibiotics led to bacteria resistance. On other hand, nanoparticles could be effective antimicrobial agents especially against antibiotic resistance pathogens. This paper reviews the diversity of metals, oxide and organic nanomaterials and their antimicrobial properties. Antimicrobial nanoparticles applicability for fresh waters disinfection and microbial control as well as the limitations, due to behavior and toxicity in environment are discussed.

Keywords: ecology, microorganisms, nanoparticles, pathogens, resistance to antibiotics, toxicity

p. 62-67 / Analytical methods and systems for water quality control

Lopushanskaya E.M.
Maksakova I.B.
Krylov A.I.

Determination of acrylamide in water by HPLC / MS method for drinking water quality control

The content of acrylamide in drinking water must be thoroughly controlled, because this compound has a carcinogenic, mutagenic and genotoxic effect. In accordance with Russian and international hygienic standards, the maximum content of acrylamide in drinking water should be from 0 to 0.0001 mg/l. Now in Russia there are no approved methods to control the content of acrylamide in water at the MAC level. The aim of the work was to develop a modern high-sensitive method for measuring the acrylamide content in water. The method was based on high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with preliminary concentration of acrylamide by solid-phase extraction from water on cartridges with a carbon sorbent. The detection limit of the developed method was 15 ng/l (15% of the MAC value for drinking water).

Keywords: acrylamide, high-performance liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry, MAC, solid-phase extraction

p. 68-74 / Chemistry of water and aqueous solutions

Gorshkov A.G.
Hutoryanskij V.A.
Hahinov V.V.
Ulzetueva I.D.
Kustova O.V.

Organic polysulfides in thermal waters of Buryatia

The role of polysulfides and the development of methods for their analysis in natural sulfide mineral waters are the object of attention. The results of the determination of elemental and polysulfide sulfur of thermal sulfide sources in Buryatia are presented. Significant amounts of nitrogen-containing organic sulfunes: N-methyldithiocarbonimidonic acid and 2,5-bis (methylthio) thiazole have been detected. The formation of sulfur allotropes - S7, S8 and S9, is attributed to the artifact, the appearance of which can be associated with the decomposition of organic sulfanes during the analysis. The presence of organic sulfanes simultaneously with elemental sulfur and hydrogen sulphide suggests that they are active balneological components of thermal hydrogen sulfide mineral waters.

Keywords: liquid chromatography, solid-phase extraction, sulfanes, sulfur

p. 75-78 / Short communications

Temirhanov B.A.
Sultygova Z.H.
Archakova R.D.
Uzhahova L.Ya.
Evloeva A.Ya.
Yandieva M.S.
Kitieva L.I.
Didigova L.A.
Ozdoeva H.S.

The study of the quality of spring water in the mountainous part of the Republic of Ingushetia

This work is a continuation of previously initiated researches on the study of quality of spring waters in the mountain part of the Republic of Ingushetia (RI). The most significant springs of Jeyrah district of the Republic of Ingushetia for the population were studied in this study. One of the most important factors affecting the health of the population is the provision of the population with good quality drinking water. Thehygienic assessment of spring waters is relevant at the regional level and the necessary component of environmental monitoring. The main physical and chemical and sanitary and epidemiological indicators were studied in this work. It is shown that the water of the investigated springs is suitable for all indicators.

Keywords: Jeyrah district, mountain part, physical and chemical indicators, quality, Republic of Ingushetia, sanitary and epidemiological indicators, springs, Sunja district, water

p. 79-85 / Short communications

Filatov D.A.
Ovsyannikova V.S.
Sharshov K.A.
Zabelin V.A.

Pilot tests for utilization of used oils with application of a consortium of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms

According to the pilot experiment results we showed the possibility of biochemical oxidation of the complex of used petroleum oils (UPO) during introduction of the Association of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms (HOM). HOM was represented by the following species: Aquamicrobium lusatiense, strain 854/1 (AM884147), Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain HNYM10 (JN999888), Paracoccus aminophilus strain ATCC 49673 (NR_042715), Gordonia hydrophobica, strain DSM 44015 (NR_026254), Bacillus pumilus, ATCC 7061 strain (NR_043242). During the cultivation of the HOM with used oil, the the number of microorganisms increased from 1.5-2∙104 CFU/ml to 5-6∙109 CFU/ml, which was associated by a significant increasing in their oxygenase activity. The proposed method, together with the removal of metabolic products during the experiment, ensure the efficiency of used oil biodegradation at the level of 93-94% after 60 days with initial concentrations of oil 25 and 50 wt.% , respectively. As a result of research it is established that all of the hydrocarbons in the UPO composition were subjected to 82-100% microbiological oxidation.

Keywords: biochemical oxidation, hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms, the enzymes, waste oil

p. 86-93 / Short communications

Velikanov H.L.
Naumov V.A.

Discharge of sewage into streams

The method of determining the ratio of the flow rate of discharging treated sewage into a watercourse and flow of the watercourse.
The relevance of the article due to the common practice in cases of discharge of sewage into streams. Especially it is peculiar to small towns and rural areas.
Normative-technical documents focused on the consideration of dilution of sewage in the watercourse. In that case, if the consumption of discharging treated sewage into a watercourse and watercourse are quantities of the same order, then dilution does not take place.
The need to consider intra-annual distribution of runoff in the rivers. The ratio of the volume of wastewater passed through the wastewater treatment plants of JSC "Gusev-KOS", the volume of water released JSC "Gusev-Vodokanal" to consumers from year to year varies only slightly, from 92.5 to 95.6 % .
The criterion of the total number of series shows that for the mathematical description of changes in monthly water volumes, you can use the model of a random variable. Presents the results of data processing for the consumption of water of two small rivers in Kaliningrad region, which carries out systematic surveillance in recent years. Determined that the minimum water month flow may be only a 1.75 % (R. Blue), and even of 1.53 % (R. Evil). It is assumed that the unit discharge is the minimum water content of 0.2 months is the average. It is established that in the summer months, the flow of discharging treated waste water may exceed the water consumption in a small river.

Keywords: average monthly volumes of water, small watercourse, standard reset, waste water