scientific journal
  • ISSN 2072-8158
  • -
  • Урал-Пресс: 012688

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology» № 9 (111) за September 2017 г.</H3>

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology»


№ 9 (111) за September 2017 г.

<<  ..  >>

Contents:

p. 64-71 /

Platonova O.A.
Shelomkov A.S.
Stepanov M.A.

Exploitation experience of aerotanks with large ages of activated sludge

At the operating aerotanks of biological wastewater treatment stations, technological regimes with constant age of activated sludge were developed. The possibility of reducing the amount of excess sludge with the simultaneous achievement of a deep degree of wastewater treatment in the operation of aerotanks with high doses of activated sludge is shown. It has been proved that maintenance of a large age of active sludge in the biological treatment system of sewage allows the operation of aerotanks with a high dose of silt, which contributes to the achievement of a deep and stable degree of wastewater treatment, and forms a biocenosis with high sedimentation indices. For the implementation of the technology of operation with a constant age for the construction of wastewater treatment plants, the optimum constructive solution for aerotanks is the carousel type scheme, which allows complete mixing of the sludge mixture in the entire volume of the structure.

Keywords: aeration tank, silt dose, sludge age


p. 72-77 /

Serpokrylov N.S.
I.A.
Rybnikov S.S.
Ahmed Khalil
Maram Sajed Ali



The article examines the biological wastewater treatment using aerated facilities, the existing kinds of air blowers and the peculiarities of their construction. The researchers investigate the possibility to intensify the water treatment process basing on airlift aerator, submit the theoretical basis and execute a number of consecutive experiments. The experiments aim to create the uniform conditions of distribution for the suspended materials concentration in the aerated volume of bioreactor model set. The result of the work is the classification of the data received and the attachment of the calculating diagrams, the description of the work carried out and the possibility to apply the technology universally.

Keywords: aerator, airlift effect, cleaning, pollution, quality, water


p. 78-83 /

Desyatov A.V.
Milyutina A.D.
Gavrilova N.N.
Kolesnikov V.A.

The influence of surfactants and hydroxides of nickel (II) and cobalt (II) on the efficiency of electroflotation extraction of carbon nanomaterials from aqueous solution

The process of electroflotation extraction of carbon nanomaterials, which was created in D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, in the presence of different types of surfactants and dispersed phase of non-ferrous metals - cobalt(II) and nickel(II) – was studied. We found the optimum concentration of surfactants (100 mg/l) and initial concentrations of ions of non-ferrous metals (10 mg/l for cobalt; 100 mg/l for nickel) for an effective process of electroflotation extraction of carbon nanoflakes from aqueous solutions. To improve the process of electroflotation, we studied colloid chemical characteristics of particles of carbon nanoflakes (average hydrodynamic radius and zeta potential) at different pH values. Also the sorption properties of the carbon material was investigated in relation to ions of non-ferrous metals (iron(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II)). Based on the obtained results, a number of sorption capacity of carbon nanomaterials for these metals was found.

Keywords: carbon nanomaterials, electroflotation, sorption, surfactants


p. 84-88 /

Muradov S.V.
Rogatyh S.V.

Influence of hydrothermal activity on the formation of the mud deposit Lake Utinoe (Kamchatka)

Lake Utynoye is the only explored and exploited deposit of the Kamchatka, the therapeutic mud of which has unique therapeutic properties. It has been established earlier that up to 40% of the feeding waters of the lake are thermal waters. Heavy metals contained in the water, primarily pollute the lake. Their ions, in turn, represent a priority group of pollutants. The control of heavy metal contamination of bottom sediments, supported by chemical and microbiological analysis, proved that an increase in the inflow of thermal waters into the feeding waters of the lake inhibits the autochthonous community of the peloid. As shown by the studies, the increase in the inflow of thermal waters into the feeding waters of the lake affects not only the formation processes of the deposit, but also the therapeutic properties of the therapeutic mud used. It is necessary to continue studying the characteristics of the reaction of microorganisms to heavy metals in the aquatic environment of the lake.

Keywords: autochthonous community, heavy metals, sediments, thermal water


p. 89-93 /

Belokonova N.A.
Antropova O.A.
Gurvich, V.B.

Determination of the complexing properties of natural organic impurities in drinking waters with respect to copper (II) ions

Introduction of the index total organic carbon to the list of centralized water supply standardized for drinking water is hindered by an ambiguous correlation with the properties of organic impurities in drinking water.
In the work, it was proposed to use the index characterizing complex-forming properties of organic impurities in water with respect to copper (II) cations to substantiate the normative values.
It has been established that in organic drinking bottled waters the concentration of organic impurities is from 0.76 to 6.48 mg / L by TOC, and their activity with respect to copper (II) ions is very different: the complexation coefficient varies from 0.28 to 1.55. High complexing activity of potable water of centralized water supply can be significantly reduced with a slight decrease in TOC content.
It is advisable to take into account the change in the content of TOC and the complexing properties of organic impurities with respect to biometals when improving domestic water treatment technologies, as well as post-treatment of drinking water from organic impurities.

Keywords: drinking water, total organic carbon


p. 3-10 /

Peremitina T.O.
Dneprovskaya V.P.

Evaluation of the NDVI index and hydrocarbon content in water on oil-extracting territories of Western Siberia

In this article, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) index and the content of hydrocarbons in the swampy waters of swamped oil producing areas of Western Siberia are estimated. Using the method of infrared spectrometry, the level of regional background content of hydrocarbons in marsh waters remote from different sources of anthropogenic impact was determined. To assess the response of vegetation to various (natural and technogenic) impacts, Earth remote sensing data were used. A quantitative assessment of the state of the environment was calculated from satellite imagery by determining the values of the vegetative index NDVI, the normalized difference vegetation index. The values of the vegetative vegetation index were calculated using the ArcGis 10.2.2 geoinformation system based on the LANDSAT 8 satellite images. The response of the vegetative communities to external influences was quantitatively characterized, the dynamics of the NDVI index change of the surveyed territories for 2013-2016 was studied.

Keywords: environment, geoinformation systems, oil fields, satellite images


p. 11-19 /

Luzhnyak O.L.

Present-day status of the phytoplankton of the lower Don under conditions of man-made changes in the river runoff

The paper provides information on taxonomic composition and quantitative characteristics of phytoplankton in the lower reaches of the river Don under conditions of anthropogenic transformation of the river runoff; the survey was conducted in spring, summer and autumn of 2016. There have been observed 139 phytoplankton species belonging to seven classes: diatoms, green, blue-green, cryptophytes, dinophytes, euglenic and golden. A seasonal change is shown in the composition of the dominant groups of planktonic algocoenosis of the lower Don. The maximum values of phytoplankton abundance and biomass obtained in the mouths of the Don’s tributaries should be referred to the total plant communities. Retrospective analysis of the data on the taxonomic composition and quantitative characteristics in different periods of man-made changes in the river basin that in the interannual dynamics of phytoplankton development in the Lower Don in the modern period no significant changes occurred.

Keywords: abundance, biomass, lower Don, phytoplankton


p. 20-27 /

Kadochnikova P.I.
Belyaeva P.G.

Pigment characteristics of algocenosis as ecological status indicators of small rivers flow through urbanized territories (the case of the rivers of Perm city)

Results of the research of photosynthetic pigments in the periphytic and planktonic algocenosis of 6 small rivers flow the Perm city territory were reviewed in the article for the first time. The research were conducted in the years (2014 and 2016) had variability of water and temperature regime. Variability of plant pigments concentration depending on year season and biotopical aspects of the samples collection places was described (0,4–396 mg∙m-2 – in the phytoperiphyton; 0,3–207 mcg∙l-1 – in the phytoplankton). Cl-a dominates in the green-pigments fund (77±2 % – in the periphyton and 63±5 % – in the plankton); abundance of auxiliary chlorophyll pigments is significantly below. Concentration of the plant carotinoid pigments is lower than the concentration of Cl-a in 63% of cases. Concentration of the feo-pigments in the periphyton of the studied rivers was low (10–21 % of the amount of Cl-a), for the most polluted rivers – Danilikha river and Yegoshikha river – 44–51 %; in the phytoplankton – 10–40 %. Seasonal variations of Cl-a concentration in the periphyton of the small rivers have one expressed peak depending on local environmental factors; concentration of auxiliary chlorophyll pigments and carotinoid pigments repeats the course of Cl-a seasonal variations. In the phytoplankton the indicators don’t have expressed seasonal dynamics. Values of the Pigment index Е480/Е664 and the proportion of carotinoid pigments/Cl-a in the Danilikha river and Yegoshikha river algocenosis are indicates an unfavorable physiological state of the rivers. In the base of quantity and proportion of the photosynthetic pigments was shown that the characteristics reflects the pollution degree. Trophic status of the rivers flow the Perm city territory by average and the most frequent Cl-a concentrations is estimated from mesotrophic to the hypereutrophic.

Keywords: chlorophyll a, ecological status, periphyton, phytoplankton, pigments, small rivers, trophic status


p. 28-36 /

Bespalova E.V.

Geoenvironmental monitoring of the Voronezh reservoir and adjacent territory

Article contains results of geoenvironmental monitoring of the Voronezh reservoir and the adjacent territory. It is shown that transformation of this water ecosystem is caused by the significant amount of the anthropogenic polluters revealed during the research. Paths of migration of pollutants through free air, soil and snow cover, underground waters, with the surface washout and immediate production of sewage, show ekologo-geochemical coherence of the water area of a reservoir and the adjacent territory. Ecological and biological inspection of a reservoir from 1988 to 2016 revealed features of seasonal and interannual dynamics of development of phytoplankton and a microphytobenthos. The carried-out analysis showed that a specific variety of both diatomic algas, and cyanobacteria was considerably reduced in three decades. The reference remains the leading role of Bacillariophyta and Cyanoprokaryota in formation of taxonomical and quantitative structure of mikrofitotsenoz. The revealed existential differences in structure of complexes of microalgas and cyanobacteria allowed to carry out ecological division into districts of the water area of a reservoir with selection of three sites that is also confirmed by the graphic analysis. The most adverse situation develops at Nizhny site of a reservoir. According to the calculated values of index of the Pantle-Bukk at V. Sladechek's modifications, quality of an aqueous medium it is estimated as moderately polluted.

Keywords: bioindication, cyanobacteria, division into districts of a reservoir, inventory of polluters, microalgas, taxonomical structure


p. 37-43 /

Bobkova E.S.

Plasma purification of wastewater containing surface active materials

Destruction mechanisms of some cationic and anionic surface active materials (SAM) in plasma processing have been studied. The influence of the DC discharge on the SAM solutions in water has been investigated. The degree of degradation of the studied compounds ranged from 70 to 99% depending on their initial concentration, processing conditions and type of the plasma system. The mechanism for transformation of the compounds is proposed. It is shown that the carboxylic acids, aldehydes, sulfate ions and nitrate ions are intermediate degradation products. The carbon dioxide was the final product of degradation. As an example a comparative analysis for degradation in plasma of water solutions of the anionic SAM (sodium lauryl sulfate) and cationic SAM (chloride triethyltetramine) has been carried out. Decrease of the total toxicity of the initial solution processed in the plasma reactor has been confirmed.

Keywords: Anionic and cationic surface-active material (SAM), dc discharge, decomposition kinetics, plasma processing


p. 44-54 /

Begun A.A.

Species composition and distribution of plankton and epiphyton microalgae of the Sukhodol River estuary (Ussury Bay, Japan/East Sea)

Species composition and quantitative distribution of plankton and epiphyton microalgae in estuary of the Sukhodol River in September 2012 were investigated. The plankton were identified 68 taxa, among them the number of species dominated microalgae by Bacillariophyta division (48 species). In relation to the salinity of the water dominated mezohalob and indifferent form (68.9% of the total number of species), typical of brackish habitats. Biomass of microalgae in the outer estuary was 467,8 mg/m3, in the deep part of the inner estuary - 285,4±117,5 mg/m3, in shallow waters - 42,0±16,5 mg/m3. As part of the macrophytes epiphyton in estuary of the Sukhodol River noted 47 species and intraspecific taxa only Bacillariophyta division. In relation to the salinity of the water also dominated mezohalob and indifferent forms (71,1%). Benthic diatom Attheya ussurensis was found in epiphyton of higher aquatic plants Zostera japonica, Ruppia maritima and Phragmites australis under seawater salinity conditions (30 0/00). Biomass of epiphyton microalgae on the surface of different macrophytes varied from 33,9±11,7 in the green alga Ulva prolifera to 2790,6±166,8 mg/g in the seagrass Zostera marina. Differences in the structure of communities of estuarine epiphyton largely determined by the ratio the mass species of microalgae to the water salinity, as well as layering arrangement of macrophytes in the water with the characteristic vertical structure.

Keywords: Attheya ussurensis, epiphyton microalgae, estuary, macrophytes, plankton microalgae, Sukhodol River


p. 55-63 /

Tarasova N.G.
Krivina E.S.

Peculiarities of the vertical distribution of planktonic algae in a stratified reservoir (on the example of lake pond of Togliatti)

Stratification of water masses contributes to the uneven distribution of aquatic organisms in the water column due to differences in water density, oxygen content, nutrients and other indicators. Algae actively adapt to those conditions, concentrating on different horizons for the most efficient use of resources that are important for the study of the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this work is to study the vertical distribution of phytoplankton in stratifitsirovannom the water, experiencing significant anthropogenic pressure. In this article the results of studying the vertical distribution characteristics of planktonic algae in the lake Pond. This is small stratified reservoir from the system Vasilevsky lakes Togliatti, experiencing significant anthropogenic pressure. It is established that during the period of stratification the greatest species richness of algae and abundance and phytoplankton biomass were recorded in the area of the thermocline (oxycline). During its lack of the distribution of the species and intraspecific taxa of algae and indicators the quantitative development of phytoplankton in the water column was more uniform. In the transitional layers of water were observed as the maximum development of algae are capable of mixotrophic nutrition. The main contribution to the formation of species richness, abundance and biomass of phytoplankton contributed beshitrostnye cyanoprokaryota that allows you to carry the lake to the pond planktotrophic type.

Keywords: phytoplankton, stratification, the "bloom" of water, trophicity, vertical distribution