scientific journal
  • ISSN 2072-8158
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  • Rospechat: 48626
  • Russian Press: 44722

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology» № 6 (108) за June 2017 г.</H3>

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology»


№ 6 (108) за June 2017 г.

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Contents:

p. 15–21 /

Klimovskii N.V.
Chernova V.G.
Novoselov A.P.

THE CONTENT OF POLLUTANTS IN THE BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF THE DVINSKY, ONEGA AND KANDALAKSHA GULFS OF THE WHITE SEA

Various economic activities, including works connected with the transportation of hydrocarbon raw materials, have increased noticeably in recent years in the White Sea, which does not exclude the emergence of emergency situations in the water area of the sea. In this regard, the assessment of the level of pollution of its open part and the coastal zone is quite relevant. The obtained results have both scientifi c novelty (temporal dynamics of the distribution of pollutants) and practical significance (state and dynamics of geochemical monitoring factors). The results of studies of the content of pollutants (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, petroleum hydrocarbons) in bottom sediments in the Dvinsky, Onega and Kandalaksha bays of the White Sea conducted in 2015-2016 are presented. The sources of pollutants’ inputs to the marine environment was determined and a comparative analysis of their content in bottom sediments of various regions was conducted. Numerical indicators of the average concentration of pollutants in bottom sediments of the abovementioned sea bays were identifi ed. It was established that over the past two years there had been a slight decrease in the content in the bottom sediments of Cu in Onega and petroleum hydrocarbons in the Kandalaksha Bay. During the same period there was an increase in the concentration of all analyzed pollutants in the bottom sediments of the Dvina Gulf, petroleum hydrocarbons and Zn in Onega, and Cu and Zn in the Kandalaksha Gulfs. This may indicate an increase in anthropogenic pressure on the White Sea basin. At the same time, according to actual indicators, the level of pollution of the bottom sediments of the White Sea by petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals can be considered insignifi cant, not yet able to negatively aff ect the conditions of development and the formation of its biological resources.

Keywords: heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, sediments, White Sea


p. 22–27 /

Bolotov S.E.
Muhortova O.V,
Fedorov R.A.

MODELING THE RANGE OF THE SOUTHERN INVADER DIAPHANOSOMA ORGHIDANI NEGREA AND CLIMATE SCENARIOS FOR ITS RESETTLEMENT IN RESERVOIRS OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA AND ADJACENT TERRITORIES

Diaphanosoma orghidani Negrea is a southern Caspian crustacean, which has been actively settled in the basins of the Middle and Upper Volga basin since 2003. From the position of biophysical modeling, the article discusses the features of the geographic spread of the southern invader D. orghidani in the central part of the Volga Basin, the results of the study of climatically-conditioned scenarios of its settlement in the reservoirs of the Samara region of the Volga up to 2050.
It is shown that the main factors that limit the development of the crustacean are the thermal conditions — both the aquatic environment and the regional climate. The proposed biophysical model qualitatively satisfactorily reproduces the subtle patterns of geographical distribution of the species, allows to predict the main directions of its distribution and assess the risks of biological invasion. The results of the simulation show that by the 2050 expansion of the species in the Middle Volga region should be expected, but extreme thermal conditions of the environment can restrain its progress in the region.

Keywords: biological invasions, biophysical models, Cladocera, distribution area, reservoir, zooplankton


p. 28–34 /

Denisova T.R.
Shajhiev I.G,
Mavrin G.V.
Sippel I.Ya.

THE INFLUENCE OF ULTRASONIC TREATMENT OF ASH SAWDUST ON OIL AND WATER ABSORPTION

The influence of ultrasonic treatment on the physicochemical and sorption properties of ash sawdust (Fráxinus excélsior) was investigated. The values of the maximum oil sorption capacity and water uptake of the samples under static conditions were determined. It is established that ultrasonic treatment of ash sawdust makes it possible to increase the oil sorption capacity and hydrophobicity of the sorption material. The highest values of the oil sorption capacity were observed for samples modified for fi ve hours: 21.26% and 22.65% increase towards the Devonian and Carbon oil, respectively, in comparison with the raw material was indicated. Ultrasonic treatment promotes more intensive extraction of water-soluble substances from the material being modified and, therefore, an increase in its hydrophobicity and porosity, that is confirmed by diffraction analysis and infrared spectra of the raw and treated sorption material, decrease of modifi ed sample's surface wetting with water.

Keywords: ash tree sawdust, oil sorption capacity, ultrasonic treatment, water uptake


p. 35–40 /

Smirnova N.N.
Afonin G.S.

COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT SORBENTS APPLICATION IN WASTE WATER TREATMENT FROM COPPER (II) IONS

The ions of heavy metals, in particular copper, are among the most dangerous substances polluting the hydrosphere. The essential role in the developing of water treatment technologies directed on their removal is assigned to the sorption methods. In present work an attempt to estimate the degree of infl uence of sorbent nature on the removal effi ciency of the copper ions (II) from aqueous solutions has been done. Researches were conducted on model systems with concentration of copper ions in the range (II) 0,01-10000 mg/dm3. The content of Cu(II) ions in the solution has been controlled spectrophotometrically in the presence/absence of diethyldithiocarbamate sodium and by AAS method. Activated aluminosilicate adsorbent GLINT, AGROIONIT, synthetic ion-exchange resin Dowex 50wx8, activated carbon from coconut shell NWC and coal Silcarbon S 835 were used as sorbents in present work. The kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the sorption process have been observed. For mathematical description of static equilibrium of sorption process Langmuir and Freundlich models have been used. It was revealed, that the capacity of the samples, mainly by means of ion-exchange sorption, is principally 20-40% higher, than the capacity of activated carbons. It has been shown, that application of AGRONIT and Dowex as sorbents led to the increase of sorption rate. In general, the sorption process passes by mixed diff usion mechanism and can be suffi ciently described by the kinetic model of pseudo second order. In static conditions of the experiment with an initial concentration of Cu(II) ions in solution 1 mg/dm3 the degree of its extraction by the investigated samples is 70-97%.

Keywords: aluminosilicate adsorbents, carbon adsorbents, ion exchange resins, ions of heavy metals, sorption, sorption isotherms


p. 41–51 /

Denisov D.B.
Valkova S.A.
Terentev P.M.
Sandimirov S.S.
Vandysh O.I.

THE CURRENT STATE OF THE ECOSYSTEM OF IMANDRA LAKE IN THE ZONE OF INFLUENCE OF THE KOLA NPP (MURMANSK REGION)

Co mplex studies of the main components of the ecosystem of the subarctic Lake Imandra in the zone of infl uence of the heated waters of the Kola NPP and adjacent areas of the water area are conducted. Data on temperature regime, water level dynamics, hydrochemical characteristics, main communities of hydrobionts (plankton, benthos, ichthyofauna) are presented. It is shown that thermal pollution currently does not have a significant effect on the ecosystem of the lake as a whole, and its consequences are limited to the zone of warm water intake.

Keywords: Kola NPP, subarctic lake, the heated waters impact


p. 52–64 /

Ryabushko L.I.
Balycheva D.S.
Kozincev A.F.
Ryabushko V.I.

EPIZOON DIATOMS OF THE MUSSEL MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS LAM. IN MARINE FARMS IN THE CRIMEAN COASTAL WATERS (THE BLACK SEA)

The results of the comparative data on the study of the composition and quantitative distribution of epizoon diatoms of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. in two farms of the Crimean coastal waters of the Black Sea are shown: near Karantynnaya (1) and Kazachya (2) bays at diff erent times depending on the age (Т) and shell length (L) of molluscs. On an example of one age group of mussel (0,5-2,0 years) at the corresponding depths of 6,0 and 4,5 m 147 species and intraspecifi c taxa of diatoms were found, 93 of them on the farm №1 and 113 on the farm №2. The similarity coeffi cient of the species composition of the Czekanowsky-Sørensen of the two farms was 56%. The maximum abundance of species reached respectively 30/19, abundance (190/313)·103 cells·cm-2 and biomass 0,15/0,78 mg·cm-2, respectively of the study areas, were recorded in the winter-spring period, at similar water temperature. Correlation analysis showed a high relationship between (L) and (Т) of the mussel, but its absence between the age of the mussel and of epizoon diatoms abundance.

Keywords: age, Black Sea, diatoms, farms, mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis


p. 65–70 /

Ergozhin E.E.
Muhitdinova B.A.
Hakimbolatova K.H.
Nikitina A.I.
Tasmagambet A.T.

STUDY OF SORPTION OF STRONTIUM (II) IONS USING NEW REDOX POLYMERS BASED ON ANIONITE AN-31

Sorption of strontium (II) ions by the industrial weakly basic anionite AN-31 and redox polymers based on it in the OH-form under static conditions has been investigated. The eff ect of the concentration and pH of model solutions of strontium chloride, as well as the time of their contact with redox polymers on their sorption characteristics has been studied. It was found that unlike anionite AN-31, which does not extract them in the strontium concentration range of 0,175-2,057 g/L, redox polymers synthesized from AN-31 and chlorinated quinones (chloranil and chloroanyl acid) possess high sorption properties. The sorption capacity of the redox polymers by the strontium (II) ions when removed from the SrCl2 solutions containing 1,93 g/L strontium, and having a pH of 4,6-5,9, reaches 385,2-446,4 mg/g. Due to their high sorption and kinetic properties, new redox polymers can be used to extract strontium (II) ions from wastewater generated in nuclear power engineering.

Keywords: AN-31 anion exchanger, redox polymers, sorption capacity, strontium (II) ions, the sorption


p. 71–77 /

Gorbacheva E.A.

ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS IN THE CENTRAL REGIONS OF THE BARENTS SEA USING BIOTESTING

With the help of biotesting, the quality of bottom sediments in the central regions of the Barents Sea, remote from the coast by several hundred kilometers was assessed. The toxicity of aqueous extracts from bottom sediments for unicellular algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin and larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia salina L. was studied. Depending on the degree of toxicity of the water extracts, the quality of the bottom sediments was determined — good, satisfactory, poor and very poor. The carried out researches have shown that in the central part of the Barents Sea the bottom sediments of good quality prevail. The deterioration of the quality of bottom sediments to the level of «satisfactory» is recorded only in certain sections of the Central Basin (the Shtokman gas condensate fi eld area) and the Northeast slope of the Murmansk bank. Bottom sediments, the state of which can be classifi ed as «bad» and «very bad», were not found in the studied water area. The results of biotesting are comparable with the published data of chemical and analytical studies, indicating a low level of pollution of bottom sediments in the open areas of the Barents Sea and an increase in the content of a number of pollutants in the sediments of the Central Basin. The possibility of the existence of areas of increased pollution of bottom sediments on the Northeast slope of the Murmansk bank is indicated only by the results of biotesting, which may be the basis for additional chemical-analytical and toxicological studies in this area. The obtained data can be used for environmental monitoring of the Barents Sea.

Keywords: Artemia salina L., Barents Sea, biotesting, marine sediments, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin


p. 78–85 /

Kuzovkova A.A.
Ivashkevich L.S.

HIGHLY SENSITIVE TECHNIQUE FOR THE IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF FLUPYRADIFURONE (A NEW BUTENOLIDE INSECTICIDE) IN WATER, BASED ON HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH UV DETECTION

The use of the new butenolide insecticide «SIVANTOTM» («Bayer CropScience AG», Germany) on the basis of flupyradifurone requires the availability of approved methods of identification and quantification of the active substance in environmental objects. For this purpose, a highly sensitive and easily reproducible technique for the determination in water of microquantities of flupyradifurone based on high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection instead of tandem mass spectrometry was developed. In the proposed technique a reverse-phase column Eclipse XDB-C18 (150×4,6 mm, grain size 5 μm, column thermostat temperature 30 °С) was used as the stationary phase, a mixture of methanol with 10 mМ NH4-formate buffer (isocratic elution) was used as a mobile phase. The substance is identified by retention time at a wavelength of 260 nm, and quantification is carried out by absolute calibration. Analysis of flupyradifurone in water is carried out aſter filtration through a micron fi lter and subsequent direct injection of the sample into the chromatograph. Recovery of flupyradifurone in water is 96%, the limit of quantitative detection is 0,001 mg/dm3.

Keywords: flupyradifurone, high-performance liquid chromatography, UV-detection, water


p. 86–93 /

Vorobeva I.B.
Vlasova N.V.
Naprasnikova E.V.

ASSESSMENT OF THE ECOLOGICAL STATE OF WATER BODIES OF THE BAIKAL NATURAL TERRITORY (SOUTH-WESTERN COAST OF LAKE BAIKAL, LISTVYANKA SETTLEMENT)

The relevance of research is due to intensive economic use of natural resources of the territory by the population of coastal settlements, which leads to their significant change. The main source is pollution, which signifi cantly changes the quality of water bodies. The study area is located in the Central zone of the Baikal natural territory, where the Listvyanka settlement is located. The population of coastal settlements uses Baikal and underground water for drinking and household needs.
The aim of the research is the hydrochemical characterization of the main watercourse of the settlement and a comparative analysis of the results in the temporal section of the past — present, as well as the assessment of the modern sanitary and ecological state of underground sources (well water). Laboratory studies and sanitary-microbiological evaluation were carried out according to generally accepted methods, methodological guidelines and GOST. As a result of the hydrochemical analysis of the current state of the Krestovka River water and the studies conducted half a century ago, an increase in the chloride content and pH, an increase in the ratio of the main ions, a decrease in the hydrocarbonate ion, calcium, and an increase in sulfate and chloride ions were detected. It was established that groundwater from wells located in different precipitations differed little according to the physicochemical parameters (pH and temperature), and the content of trace elements (manganese, barium, aluminum, lead, copper, silicon, zinc, strontium) corresponded Sanitary and hygienic standards. An increased of number of heterotrophic bacteria and total microbial count were detected. Enterococci were detected in all investigated wells (with the exception of the new one), confirming the contamination of well water with products of fecal origin.

Keywords: hydrochemical characteristics, macro- and micro-components, sanitary-microbiological assessment


p. 3–14 /

Kazachenok N.N.
Popova I.Ya.

DYNAMICS OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF VEGETATION OF VARIOUS WATER ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SOUTHERN URALS

The results of studies of accumulation of 90Sr and 137Сs in aquatic vegetation in a territory exposed to radioactive contamination as a result of activities of The Mayak Production AssociationIn the Southern Urals areshown. Accumulation of 137Сs in most plants in the river Techa, with the exception of hornwort, decrease with distance from the source of pollution, And the accumulation 90Sr either does not depend on distance, or increases. The coeffi cients of accumulation of radionuclides in the technological reservoir have increased over time. Accumulation of 90Sr and 137Сs by water plants of the lakes of the East Urals radioactive trace is very variable. Partly submerged plants with a powerful root system, accumulate significantly less of 90Sr and 137Сs, than unconquered and weakly rooted. The type of reservoir and the level of contamination of bottom sediments, apparently, does not have a signifi cant eff ect on Кn 90Sr and 137Сs in aquatic plants.

Keywords: accumulation factor, Aquatic ecosystems, bottom sediments, nuclear pollution, water, water plants