scientific journal
  • ISSN 2072-8158
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  • Rospechat: 48626
  • Russian Press: 44722

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology» № 1 (103) за January 2017 г.</H3>

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology»


№ 1 (103) за January 2017 г.

..  >>

Contents:

p. 26-33 /

Kalyuzhnaya O.V.
Ickovich V.B.
Kupchinskij A.B.

MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF CYANOBACTERIA, FORMING FOULING FILMS ON THE SURFACE OF ENDEMIC SPONGE LUBOMIRSKIA BAICALENSIS

In recent years in the lake Baikal various damage and diseases of endemic sponges, such tissue bleaching, the appearance of untypical microbial fi lms and necrotic areas on the surface of the sponge are observed. One of the most common damage
of branching sponges Lubomirskia baicalensis are fouling mucous reddish-brown color, fully or partially covers the body of the sponge. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the slimy fi lm on the surfaces of the sponge consist of Oscillatoriales cyanobacteria belonged to the genera: Tychonema, Phormidium and Leptolyngbya. Wherein, 44 of the 86 identifi ed sequences belong to the genus Tychonema. It is suggested that in Lake Baikal cyanobacterial fouling of the sponge may caused by changes of the environmental conditions of the sponge habitat, in particular, temperature increase and eutrophication of coastal areas of the lake near the settlements.

Keywords: endemic sponges, filamentous cyanobacteria, fouling, lake Baikal, Leptolyngbya, Lubomirskia baicalensis, Phormidium, Tychonema


p. 11-18 /

Polyak Yu.M.
Shigaeva T.D.
Kudryavceva V.A.
Konakov V.G.

INFLUENCE OF GRAIN-SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SEDIMENTS ON THE MOBILITY AND TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS IN THE COASTAL ZONE OF THE GULF OF FINLAND

High anthropogenic pressure on the coastal zone of the Gulf of Finland leads to the accumulation of heavy metals in sediments and higher content of their mobile, bioavailable forms. The maximum content of mobile forms of metals (up to 6.8 μg/g) was found in the monitoring stations located in close proximity to major sea ports (Primorsk, Luga Bay, Lomonosov). Metals mobility is largely dependent on the particle size distribution of sediments. A signifi cant connection between the mobile forms of copper and zinc and content of clay fractions was established. Copper and lead — metals that are the main contributors to the pollution of the bay, have a toxic eff ect on the enzyme activity of sediments. Long anthropogenic interference contributes to the adaptation of the microbial community to heavy metals.

Keywords: enzymatic activity, grain-size distribution, labile metals, sediments


p. 3-10 /

Kotovschikov A.V.
Dolmatova L.A.
Sutchenkova O.S.

CHANGING ECOLOGICAL STATE OF A MIDDLE STREAMFLOW RESERVOIR OF DOMESTIC WATER PURPOSES AFTER 60 YEARS OF ITS EXISTENCE

As a result of the location survey in September 2013 the ecological state of middle streamfl ow taiga Kara-Chumysh reservoir of domestic water purposes (Upper Ob basin) by hydrochemical indicators and phytoplankton was estimated. Concentrations of mineral forms of nitrogen and phosphorus in surface water did not exceed the limits specifi c to suffi ciently clean water. A feature of the reservoir during the entire period of its existence (over 60 years) is the high content of easily oxidized organic substances. Currently, the value permanganate oxidation and BOD5 achieved a rank of highly contaminated water. The level of development of phytoplankton in most part of the area corresponds to a range of eutrophic waters: the content of chlorophyll a — 22,2-26,1 mg/m3. Biomass in the lower part was 3,9 g/m3, numerically cyanoprokaryota dominated: Microcystis pulverea (H.C.Wood) Forti and Aphanizomenon fl os-aquae (L.) Ralfs. From the fi rst years of exploitation of the reservoir there were periods of «fl owering» of water. There is a thermal stratifi cation of water in the lower part of the reservoir — in the bottom layer (14-15 m) there is a minimum content of chlorophyll a, oxygen and oxidation, as well as the maximum concentration of nutrients. Gross primary production of phytoplankton in the dam parts of the reservoir was 3,0 gO2/m2∙day, that in 1,7 times higher than in the same period of the year 50 years ago, and corresponds to eutrophic waters.

Keywords: nutrients, organic matter, phytoplankton, primary production, water quality


p. 19-25 /

Mokhova O.N.
Klimovskii N.V.
Mel’nik R.A.
Novoselov A.P.

THE SPATIAL-TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF THE CONTENT OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN THE WATERS OF THE WHITE SEA

A diverse economic activity, including the work related to the transportation of hydrocarbon raw material that does not exclude the occurrence of emergencies has considerably increased in the White Sea in the last few years. In this regard, the assessment of background pollution of its water area and the coastal area is quite relevant. The obtained results have both scientifi c novelty (modern spatial and temporal dynamics of the pollutant distribution), as well as practical signifi cance (the state and dynamics of geochemical monitoring factors). The article presents the results of research carried out in the White Sea in different seasons of 2011-2015, the conventional methods in the collection and processing of materials were used. The data on the content of petroleum products in the water, as well as chart maps of distribution of hydrocarbons in the surface and bottom layers of water are presented. The most polluted areas, showing the trend of petroleum hydrocarbons changes in recent years were identified. The repeatability of excess content of petroleum hydrocarbons in the White Sea in the last five years was calculated. It was found that the highest amplitude of the oscillations of pollutant concentrations was noted in Kandalaksha Bay, accounting 0-1.5 MPC in spring and summer period and 0-3 MPC in autumn period for fishery water bodies. Excess concentrations most oſt en were observed in the areas of most intensive economic activity, including the estuarine region of the rivers, and on the whole by the sea reached in the spring and summer 11%, in the autumn — 14%. Analysis of the spatial distribution of hydrocarbons allowed to identify the main sources of its revenues in marine waters. In the Dvina and Onega bays of it was river flow, in Kandalaksha Bay — seaport Vitino used for export shipments of oil and of petroleum products. It was revealed that for the past five years, pollution of marine waters by hydrocarbons is relatively low. It is recommended to continue carrying out of geochemical monitoring of water as a component part of an integrated environmental monitoring of the White Sea.

Keywords: geochemical monitoring, maximum permissible concentration, petroleum hydrocarbons, spatial and temporal dynamics, White Sea


p. 34-40 /

Poltaruha O.P.

THE MATERIALS TO THE BARNACLE (CIRRIPEDIA THORACICA) FAUNA OF KUWAIT

Earlier undefi ned barnacles (Cirripedia Thoracica) sampled in littoral zone of Kuwait and deposited in the collections of Zoological Museum of Moscow State University, were investigated. In 4 studied samples the following species were found: Amphibalanus amphitrite amphitrite (Darwin, 1854), Microeuraphia permitini (Zevina et Litvinova, 1970), and Tetraclita rufotincta Pilsbry, 1916. The individuals of the studied species were described, illustrated and compared to those from the publications. The obtained data extend the previously known areas of distribution of T. rufotincta and confirm inhabitation of M. permitini in Kuwait waters.

Keywords: barnacles, Kuwait, littoral zone


p. 41–47 /

Krasnova E.S.
Umanskaya M.V.

DIMENSIONAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF BACTERIOPLANKTON OF IVANKOVO RESERVOIR (JULY 2011)

The study of bacterioplankton condition throughout the waters of the Ivankovo Reservoir in July 2011 was conducted. The total number of bacteria (TNB) varies at diff erent stations from 2,00 to 7,15 ×106cells/ml, on average, to the reservoir it amounted 4,15×106cells/ml. The average volume of cells was 0,065±0,006 μm3. The total biomass of bacteria varied from 107,9-494,2 mg/m3, which corresponds to 29,3-125,4 μg С/L. The highest abundance and biomass of bacteria were found at stations of Shosha Reach. It is characteristic that increased number of bacteria in Shosha Reach compared with the Volga and Ivankovskoe during the summer period is registered in the reservoir since 1974. As part of the bacterioplankton of reservoir the single free swimming cocci and coccobacilli were dominated in July 2011 (84,1±9,0% of the total number). Cells associated with detrital particles were found throughout the reservoir, and their contribution to the overall strength was 8,09±1,89%. Cells less than 1 micron in length were 94,5±4,9% from TNB. The structure of the summer bacterioplankton for the period 1991-2011 was quite stable — in its structure small single free swimming cells were dominated, the percentage of aggregated bacterioplankton was small, and most of the cells were associated with the detrital particles. The number of bacterioplankton in July 2011 decreased slightly compared to 2005, but the total number has not exceeded long-term fluctuations for the summer period (1970-2013).

Keywords: bacterioplankton, Ivankovo Reservoir


p. 48-59 /

Dzyuba A.V.
Elpiner L.I.

DEGRADATION OF CRYOLITHOZONE AND THE RISK OF A GLOBAL VIRAL INVASION

Based on the modern cryological, virological, hydrological, climatological and ecological-medical concepts the concept of a possible global viral infestation associated with the processes of melting of permafrost and paleo viral contamination of groundwateris presented. The most probable mechanism of formation and development of the global environmental hazard, initiator of which may be the paleo viruses that can be safely preserved in Creolithosphere for tens and hundred thousand years was studied. The ways of the possible formation of an extremely dangerous epidemic situation, depending on the characteristics of the population using of cryolithozone of underground and surface water for drinking purposes. The necessity of in-depth development of large-scale inter-disciplinary research in order to clarify the pathogenetic signifi cance of paleo viruses in the cryolithozone, and develop a set of environmental and anti-epidemic measures was established.

Keywords: climate change, cryolithozone, environmental hazards, groundwater, viruses


p. 61-66 /

Dremicheva E.S.

STUDYING OF THE SORPTION KINETICS OF COPPER AND IRON (III) IONS FROM WASTE WATER BY PEAT

The sorption kinetics of copper (II) and iron (III) ions from model solutions by peat, which showed that the sorption process is quite fast and is almost complete aſt er 20 minutes was studied. Based on the processing of the experimental curves of absorption using equations of diff usion and chemical kinetics it was found that the sorption process takes place in the diffusion regime. Contribution to the overall speed of the process also makes the chemical interaction of metal ions stage with functional groups of peat. These data on the kinetics of sorption can extend the understanding of the mechanism of peat interaction with ions of copper (II) and iron (III). The effi ciency of the sorption process, which has shown the possibility of using of peat as a sorbent for purifi cation of waste water from copper (II) and iron (III) ions in industrial facilities was determined.

Keywords: heavy metals, kinetics of the process, peat, sorption


p. 67–72 /

Babichenko S.M. Ph.D. in Physics, Chief Technical Offi cer, Ocean Visuals AS
Sobolev I.A. Ph.D. in Computer and Systems Engineering , Leading Developer, LDI Innovation OÜ
Vint L. in Engineering, Chief Engineer, LDI Innovation OÜ

MONITORING OF MARINE ENVIRONMENT WITH HLIF LIDAR

In-time detection of oil spill in water remains a demanding task for maritime operations. Eff ective measures against oil spill require locating and characterizing the oil in water at early stage, before the pollution becomes a major spill. The Hyperspectral Laser Induced Fluorescence (HLIF) technique combines unique features of high selective and sensitive (partper-million level) oil-in-water detection with real-time data analysis capabilities. This technique is realized in shipboard HLIF LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) of Ocean Visuals AS. It is capable of detection of oil fi lms on water surface, emulsifi ed oil in water column, and submerged oil under the water surface. Operated in unattended mode on board of maritime , it provides real-time analytical surveillance of marine environment. This paper describes the operations with shipboard HLIF LiDAR and its further development for airborne applications.

Keywords: fluorescence, Lidar, Oil pollution, Remote Sensing


p. 73–79 /

Zabolotnyh S.A.
Lesnov A.E.
Denisova S.A.

GEL EXTRACTION OF METAL IONS USING DIANTHAPYRYLIUM ALKANES IN STRATIFIED WATER SYSTEMS BASED ON ALKYL BENZENE SULFONIC ACID

Using isothermal titration method and sections phase equilibria in systems of water - alkyl benzene sulfonic acid - hydrochloric acid and water - alkyl benzene sulfonic acid - sulfuric acid at 25°C were studied. On the constructed solubility isotherms of systems areas of two-phase liquid equilibrium were found. The concentration boundaries of the existence of areas of delamination were determined. The eff ect of additional complexing agents: antipyrine, diantipyrylmethane, dianthapyrylium butane and dianthapyrylium heptane on phase equilibria of systems was studied. Concentration parameters of systems suitable for use in the extraction were established. On the example of interfacial distribution of a number of metal ions, which were extracted by diff erent mechanisms, in the absence and presence of dianthapyrylium alkanes the possibility of extraction of systems was investigated. The possibility of using alkyl benzene sulfonic acid as a component of extraction systems of unconventional type, stratifying without organic solvent with the introduction of an inorganic salting-out agent was shown. The advantage of the proposed systems is the absence of toxic and fl ammable components.

Keywords: alkyl benzene sulfonic acid, dianthapyrylium alkanes, gel extraction by surfactants, water exfoliating systems


p. 80–86 /

Ivicheva K.N.

ZOOBENTHOS OF THE VOLOGDA RIVER

For the first time on the example of the Vologda River zoobenthos community of watercourses of the Vologda region was extensively studied. In Vologda River three sections with different hydrological regime are allocated: the river part, the reservoir and the almost stagnant pond from the dam to the mouth. On the last section the Vologda River flows through the regional center, and receives all its drains. As a part of the bottom communities of the Vologda River 177 species and taxa of supraspecific rank were noted, their number decreases down the stream. The average values of abundance and biomass show weak dependence on anthropogenic load. Their seasonal fluctuations in the river stations with varying degrees of human intervention showed the opposite relationship. The structure of the community is changed down the river — increasing share in the total number and biomass of oligochaetes, the remaining taxa gradually fall out, becoming mono-dominant community. The trophic structure of communities also transformed — decreases the share of predators, detritus feeders and fi lter feeders, the role of soils swallowers increases. In the upper water in the Vologda River is described as «very clean» Oligosaprobic, below the town on the river — as «very dirty» Polysaprobic, Shannon index value decreases.

Keywords: antropogenic load, bioindication, Vologda Region, Vologda River, zoobentos


p. 87–92 /

Kazmiruk V.D.
Kazmiruk T.N.

MICROPLASTICS IN SEDIMENTS: METHODS FOR DETERMINATION

Microplastics is a new threat to the ecological welfare of aquatic ecosystems and human health at all levels from the molecular to the population. Currently, methods of its detection and identifi cation are in the stage of formation and approbation. Based on the own experience and analysis of the works of other authors a generalization of modern research methods of microplastics in sediments of marine and inland water bodies is performed. The methods of sampling and analysis features to determine the abundance, type, size, shape, color, stage of degradation, chemical composition and potential revenue sources of microplastics are observed. The presented range of modern approaches allow to choose the optimal method of monitoring and study of microplastics in sediments for specifi c natural and fi nancial conditions.

Keywords: methods for identifi cation, microplastics, sediments