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  • ISSN 2072-8158
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  • Rospechat: 48626
  • Russian Press: 44722

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology» № 12 (102) за December 2016 г.</H3>

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology»


№ 12 (102) за December 2016 г.

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Contents:

p. 67–73 / Analytical methods and systems for water quality control

Verkhozina V.A.
Verkhozina E.V.
Safarov A.S.
Bukin Yu.S.

THE USE OF VARIANCE AND CORRELATION METHODS OF ANALYSIS FOR THE STUDY OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF MICROORGANISMS OF LAKE BAIKAL

The efficiency of using the variance and correlation methods for analysis of a large number of the obtained data was shown. It allows to reveal fluctuations of antibiotic resistance in seasonal and interannual aspects and also calculate pairwise correlation coefficients. The absence of correlation between the number of bacteria and antibiotic resistance was found.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance., aquatic organisms, correlation analysis, dispersion method, ecosystem, lake Baikal


p. 74–80 / Chemistry of water and aqueous solutions

Kuznecov V.V.
Efremova E.N.
Filatova E.A.
Kurdin K.A.
Kolesnikov A.V.
Pirogov A.V.

ELECTROOXIDATION OF AZOBENZENE AND SOME AZO DYES IN THE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

The electrooxidation of some azo compounds at Pt/Ti inert electrodes was studied in aqueous solutions. It has been shown that the azo dyes without the electron donating groups in their molecules oxidize in the course of secondary chemical reaction with the active oxygen forms generating at the anode during electrolysis. It has been found that the oxidation of azo compounds results to the formation of polyphenols. Further, under the electrolysis conditions, they degrade, and the inorganic products form in the solutions. The degree of mineralization under the conditions of electrochemical treatment is rather high. This conclusion was proved by the results of UV spectroscopy. Generally, the regularities founded in the azobenzene solutions are valid for the electrooxidation of some azo dyes, namely methyl red, brilliant yellow, orange 2G.

Keywords: aqueous solutions, azo compounds, electrooxidation


p. 81–86 / Short communications

Kurina E.M.

TROPHIC STRUCTURE OF ALIEN SPECIES OF MACROZOOBENTHOS IN THE KUIBYSHEV AND SARATOV RESERVOIRS

Analysis of the trophic structure of benthic communities and the nature of its change in the case of propagation
of invasive species has particular importance in the study of aquatic ecosystems. Studies of trophic interactions
of alien species were carried out for the fi rst time for the reservoirs of Middle and Lower Volga (Kuibyshev and
Saratov). According to the method and the nature of feeding in the reservoirs six trophic groups of benthic
invertebrates were outlined: phytodetritophags-foragers (shellfi shTheodoxus astrachanicus (Starobogatov, Filchakov,
Pirogov 1994), Lithoglyphus naticoides (Pfeiff er, 1828)); detritophags-foragers-soil engulfers (polichaete Hypania
invalida (Grube, 1860), oligochaete Potamothrix vejdovskyi Hrabe, 1941); omnivorous foragers+catchers (most
amphipods, cumaceans crustacean, mysid); predators-catchers (leech Archaeobdella esmonti Grimm, 1876); sessile
sentophags+detritophag-fi lterer (shellfi sh Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Andrussov, 1847) и D. polymorpha
polymorpha (Pallas, 1771)); detritophags-foragers+fi lterers (amphipods Dikerogammarus haemobaphes (Eichwald,
1841),Chelicorophium curvispinum G.O. Sars, 1895). More than 60% of alien species relate to a group of omnivorous
foragers+catchers that ensures success of their naturalization in heterogeneous reservoirs. Communities of alien
species diff er by trophic structure both in general for the reservoirs, and on the level of biotopic localization (coastal,
channel). The relative share of the number of phytodetritophages-foragers and omnivorous foragers+catchers in the
trophic structure of zoobenthos decreases during the transition from the solid substrate of the coastal area of the
reservoirs to the silted soils of deepwater areas at which sestonophages+detritophages-fi lters (D. r. bugensis и D. p.
polymorpha) obtain development and in a lesser extent detriphages-foragers+ soil (H. invalida и P. vejdovskyi), living
in the consortium of zebra mussel. Increasing of the average summer temperature of water in 2010 on 3,0 °C caused
decreasing of the part of omnivorous foragers+catchers compared to 2009 in almost all parts of the reservoir, due to
the dramatic reduction of the number of crustaceans. Low number of predators was found in the trophic structure
of benthos of reservoirs, which is characteristic for eutrophic water bodies and watercourses.

Keywords: alien species, Kuibyshev reservoir, macrozoobenthos, Saratov Reservoir, trophic structure


p. 87–93 / Short communications

Vinokurova N.V.
Kalinina E.A.
Stol E.E.
Kurkina M.V.
Vaschejkin A.S.
Sadovnikov P.V.

HEAVY METALS IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF SOME WATER BODIES OF THE KALININGRAD REGION

This study is relevance because heavy metals that are constantly entering in an aqueous medium as a result of anthropogenic processes, have high bioavailability and overall toxicity for living organisms. Therefore, the study of bottom sediments of a number of Kaliningrad region reservoirs on the content of the following heavy metals: Pb, Zn, Sr, Cr, Ni was conducted. The bottom sediments of the following water bodies: pond of the village Kostrovo, Chaika lake, Chistoe pond, system of ponds Karasevka, Botanical Garden pond, Pen’kovoe lake, Shkol’noe lake were chosen as an objects of research. In addition, an analysis of the obtained data was carried out in comprasion with the results of previous studies in the city of Kaliningrad and the Pushkin district of St. Petersburg. The metal content in bottom sediments samples was determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis using the device «Spectroscan Max — G» (NGO «Spectron» LLC, Russia). Analysis of soil samples was performed according to the method M049-P/10. Maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for soils were used for comparison and evaluation of the obtained results. The multiple excess of zinc and lead MPC in bottom sediments of the Botanical Garden pond was found. The lead content below the level of MPC was found in grounds of the Chaika lake and pond of the village Kostrovo. Zinc concentrations in water bodies of the region were at MPC level or above it in several times. Gross strontium content in the studied reservoirs was well below the MPC. The content of chromium and nickel in these water bodies was in several times higher and dangerously exceed the MPC of these metals. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that soils of water bodies of Kaliningrad city are more contaminated by heavy metals than Pushkin district of St. Petersburg. As a result of evaluation of the obtained data it can be recommended for environmental services of Kaliningrad region system organization of heavy metals monitoring in water bodies of the city and the region, in order to identify pollution sources.

Keywords: bottom sediments, heavy metals, Kaliningrad, soils, St. Petersburg


p. 3–9 / Ecology issues

M.V.Gapeeva
Uvarov A.G.

RARE EARTH ELEMENTS (REE) IN THE SYSTEM WATER — BOTTOM SEDIMENTS — PLANTS OF THE MOSKVA RIVER. PART 2. THE CONTENT OF REE IN HIGHER AQUATIC VEGETATION OF THE MOSKVA RIVER

The aim of this work was the defi nition of accumulative capacity of rare earth elements (REE) by frequent species of aquatic plants and by various parts of therm, the calculation of bioaccumulation factors (BAF), translocation factors (TF) of REE in Old-World arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia L.), European cow lily (Nuphar lutea (L.) Smith), Flowering rush (Butomus umbrellatus L.), clasping-leaved pondweed (Potamogeton perfoliatus L.) and Meakin (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) The present study was carried out on the Moskva River in the summer of 2010 and 2012. REE concentrations were determined by the ICP MS DRC-e using internal standard In and external calibration. The results of the study show that the distribution of REE in the water and bottom sediments (BS) of the Moskva River is quite variable both in time and in space, along the way from the source to the mouth. In the context of abnormally hot weather in 2010, the level of free-fl owing forms of REE in BS on shallow areas of the river has increased dramatically. Moreover, it is diffi cult to estimate the origin of REE. According to the analysis of samples taken in the high-water period of 2012 and normalized with respect to Russian clay it was shown that the REE in the Moskva River have both natural and anthropogenic origin. In this paper, reliable relationship between REE and BS in the roots of all the studied plants, collected in 2010 were not found. However, in 2012 the correlation between the plants and BS were signifi cant at p> 0.05. The results of two years of research show that all of the studied plant are accumulators but not hyperaccumulators of REE.

Keywords: bottom sediments, macrophytes, Moskva River, rare earth elements


p. 10–15 / Ecology issues

Tunakova Yu.A.
Galimova A.R.
Novikova S.V.
Valiev V.S.
Safarova V.I.

DEVELOPMENT OF APPROACHES FOR TERTIARY TREATMENT OF POTABLE WATER OF MEGAPOLIS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF KAZAN)

The study of potable water was carried out geographically differentiated in Kazan with separation by service areas of children’s clinics. A signifi cant degree of secondary pollution of potable water with metal cations in all areas of study as a result of passage through the water pipes and distributing networks was found. The presence of an increased cancer risk in the case of tap water using by child population in all areas of study was discovered. In order to limit the intake of metal cations with consumed potable water, adequate address tertiary treatment must be realized. For this purpose, assessing the probabiltiy of metal cations intake with potable water was suggested. For this probability, it was taken the probability of exceeding the upper quartile ranked number dose values. As a result of the study, approaches for designing of targeted recommendations for tertiary treatment of potable water using methods of cluster analysis and risk theory were developed.

Keywords: clustering, potable water, probability, risk to health, tertiary treatment


p. 16–21 / Water bodies monitoring

Melnikova (Yakovleva) A.V.
Yakovlev V.A.

LONG-TERM AND SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF WATER QUALITY OF UPPER REACHES OF THE KUIBYSHEV RESERVOIR ON ZOOBENTHOS INDICATORS

182 taxa of diff erent rank levels were identifi ed during the long-term study period (2000-2014) of deep water in the upper reaches of the Kuibyshev Reservoir. 88 of them had saprobic valency. The largest number of taxa belonged to the β-α-β-mesosaprobic and β-mesosaprobic species. As a result, the quality of water, which was evaluated by the saprobity index species diversity of Shannon, saprobity index of Pantle and Bukka in modifi cation of Sladecheka and chironomid index of Balushkina corresponded to III and IV class («moderately polluted» and «polluted»). Obtained results are comparable to estimates by hydrochemical and other hydrobiological data. According to the analysis of interannual and seasonal changes of the average values of indexes, in all the years and seasons, pond corresponded to mesosaprobic areas of pollution and water quality was assessed as passing from «polluted» to «moderately polluted». One of the main causes of changes in the state of the reservoir was the impact of water level fluctuations in the reservoir. So in 2010, when there was the lowest water level in the reservoir since 2000, there was a low species diversity and condition was assessed as «polluted», but in general, subsequently improvement in water quality was observed. Another reason for the fluctuations in the index values and particularly the Shannon diversity index is the dominance of two species of mussels and Litoglyphus naticoides in zoobenthos, which were the most often encountered in the samples and had the greatest contribution to the quantitative indicators of zoobenthos among other taxa. Changes in water quality seasonal may be related to the fact that during the year in the reservoir there are not only changes in the water level, but also changes in hydro-chemical, temperature and other parameters. Water quality also depends on the biological characteristics of zoobenthos.

Keywords: bioindication, estimation, Kuibyshev reservoir, water quality, zoobenthos


p. 22–28 / Water treatment technologies

Lavrinenko A.A.
Golberg G.Yu.
Palkin A.B.
Radzhabov M.M.

MODELING OF FLOCCULATION PROCESS OF FINE COAL FLOTATION TAILINGS IN A CLOSED WATER CIRCULATION CYCLE

In the present work in order to quantify the fundamental possibility of mineral particles flocculation the numerical simulation of the interaction of polymer flocculants with coal flotation tailings particles was carried out. An approach for determining the type of flocculant and its dosage as a function of potential energy particle-macromolecule interaction particle size was proposed. This concept was applied to the fine coal flotation tailings, solid phase of which is comprising about 50 % of particles with size -10 microns and mean zeta potential of the solids is -31 mV. The potential energy particle macromolecule interaction was determined on the base of extended Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek (DLVO) theory. These calculated data show the fundamental possibility of flocculation investigated tailings by high molecular anionic polyacrylamide flocculants. Also, by calculation it was determined that the minimum value of the particle diameter in the process of flocculation, depending on the flocculant dosage and solids concentration.

Keywords: coal flotation tailings, extended DLVO theory, flocculant, flocculation


p. 29–35 / Scientific and analytical reviews

Dzyuban A.N.

AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC PROCESSES OF ORGANIC MATTER DESTRUCTION IN THE BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF THE VOLGA–KAMA CHAIN OF RESERVOIRS

Processes of microbial destruction in bottom sediments have important role in the self-cleaning of water bodies from organic pollution. However, aerobic conditions lead to complete mineralization of these substances up to the neutral compounds, and severe contamination and O2 deficiency lead to predomination of anaerobic processes with the release of toxic destruction products. The aim of the work is analysis of the environmental conditions impact on the processes of sludge microbial destruction and the role of methanogenesis. Aerobic and anaerobic processes of organic substances destruction were assessed by O2 absorption from water and metabolic CO2 release from soil. Methanogenesis intensity was determined by gas chromatography. The following ecological and geographical features of destruction processes in sediments were identifi ed: 1 — the total value of destruction, as well as contribution of anaerobic destruction in the total value, decreases from north to south; 2 — the intensity and direction of microbial processes are determined by the composition of the organic complex, Red/Ox conditions, the degree of contamination of sludge; 3 — the role of methanogenesis increases in areas of strong anthropogenic influence — up to 60-95% in the anaerobic destruction of organic carbon. It was shown that the microbial destruction of organic matter in the bottom sediments of the reservoirs of the Volga-Kama Chain is not only an important element of the carbon cycle, but also a powerful environment-shaping factor in their ecosystems.

Keywords: bottom sediments, destruction of organic matter, methanogenesis


p. 36–41 / Hydrobiology

Terehova V.E.
Belkova N.L.

MOLECULAR AND GENETIC DETECTION OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA IN THE FAR EASTERN BOTTLENOSE

Experience of the use of PCR with species-specific primers for the detection of various molecular markers of P. aeruginosa in the Far East bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) was presented. The efficiency of the use of commercial reagent kits «DNK-ekspress-krov’-plius» («DNA-express-blood-plus»), «Nabor dlia vydeleniia DNK iz bioprob» («Kit for DNA isolation from bioassay») (NPF «Liteh», Russia) and «DNK-sorb B» («DNA-sorb В») (AmpliCens®, Russia) for the bacterial DNA purification from blood samples and surface epithelium of dolphins was shown. Amplification of DNA was performed using eight pairs of species-specific primers that are the most commonly used in the identification of P. aeruginosa and its detection in clinical material. It was found that the best targets for detection of P. aeruginosa in clinical samples of Far East bottlenose dolphins are species-specifi c gene region of 16S rRNA, and the gene encoding the peptidoglycan associated with lipoprotein L of outer membrane. Potential opportunity for the use of PCR-detection of P. aeruginosa in skin scrapings of dolphins using as molecular targets genes encoding lipoprotein I of outer membrane and cytoplasmic function (ϭ-factor) was shown.

Keywords: PCR-detection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, species-specifi c gene target, Tursiops truncatus


p. 42–53 / Hydrobiology

Demesinova G.T.
Kurashov E.A.

CURRENT STATE OF ZOOPLANKTON IN THE LOWER STREAM OF THE URAL RIVER

Zooplankton in a lower stream of the Ural River is not suffi ciently investigated. The purpose of this article is to provide
information about the current state of zooplankton in a lower stream of the Ural River, which can serve as a basis
of comparative hydrobiological and monitoring studies, as well as to evaluate a forage reserve for fi sh. Research
of the qualitative composition and quantitative development of zooplankton in the river was performed for two
years (2013 and 2014). It is shown that the zooplankton of the river is characterized by a low level of quantitative
development, rather monotonous and relatively poor species composition. Over the past 50 years the complex of
dominant zooplankton species in the Ural River was almost constant as a whole. The distribution of zooplankton
species and their quantitative development in the diff erent seasons of the year indicates a considerable patchiness in distribution of zooplankton in the water mass of the river flow. The findings show the importance of hydrological conditions for the development of zooplankton in the Ural River as compared with the content of biogenic elements and organic compounds. Comparing new results with the results of the study of zooplankton in the 60s of the last century showed that level of quantitative development of zooplankton consistently varies greatly from year to year in a lower stream of the Ural River and this is its characteristic feature. Peculiarities of zooplankton development in a given year are determined primarily by water flow conditions and flooding in a given year.

Keywords: abundance, biomass, lower stream, species composition, Ural River, zooplankton


p. 54–58 / Hydrobiology

Ponomareva A.A.
Shevchenko O.G.

BLOOM OFHAPTOPHYTE ALGAE IN THE AREA OF MARINE MAMMALS KEEPING IN OPEN WATER

During the studies of the bottle samples of phytoplankton collected in spring 2013 in Paris Bay, Russky Island, Sea of Japan, bloom of haptophyte Pseudohaptolina sorokinii Stonik, Efimova et Orlova, 2016 was found. This is the second record of the occurrence of the species in the World Ocean. Mass development of P. sorokinii was noted since the beginning of the ice melting in the water area; the maximum number of species cells — 13,7 million cells/L recorded in the surface horizon at -1,2 — -0,3 °C and salinity 13,8–32,5 psu. It is known that some haptophyte species are toxic and mass development of them may be accompanied by death of fish and invertebrates. Mass development of potentially toxic microalgae that was found in this work points at the need of phytoplankton monitoring in the waters where marine mammals are kept in open net pents.

Keywords: bloom of microalgae, haptophyte algae, Paris Bay, Pseudohaptolina sorokinii, Russky Island, Sea of Japan


p. 59–66 / Materials for water conditioning

Linnikov O.D.
Rodina I.V.
Tyutyunnik A.P.
Surikov V.T.
Sokolova L.L.
Eselevich D.A.

THE SORPTION OF COPPER IONS ИН GRANULAR FILTER MATERIAL KGFM

The sorption properties in relation of the copper ions of the two forms (activated and non-activated) of mineral granular material KGFM were studied. The study was carried out using a model solution of copper sulfate(II) containing additionally 400 mg/l of sodium sulfate. It was shown that activated and non-activated forms of KGFM have different sorption properties. Non-activated form of KGFM removes copper ions from the solution due to their physical adsorption on its surface, and the sorption process is well described by the Langmuir equation. The parameters of this equation were determined for different pH of the model solution. The activated form of KGFM increases the pH of the solution and cleans it from copper ions due to their precipitation in the form of insoluble compounds. High concentration of copper in solution (above 0.1 mg/l) leads to precipitation of it in the form of hydroxide. At low concentration of copper ions in solution they deposit apparently in the form of malachite and azurite. In the last case, the deep cleaning of solutions from copper, up to standard level MPC (Russia) for fishery water bodies, can be achieved by using of an activated form of KGFM.

Keywords: adsorption, cleaning of water, equation of Langmuir, ions Cu(II), sorption