scientific journal
  • ISSN 2072-8158
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  • Урал-Пресс: 012688

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology» № 09 (99) за September 2016 г.</H3>

Journal «Water: chemistry and ecology»

№ 09 (99) за September 2016 г.

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p. 27-29 /

Berdieva M.I.
Turobzhonov S.M.
Nazirova R.A.

The use of sulfonic cation of polycondensation type in the processes of industrial water softening

In the work the possibility of application in processes of demineralization of different waters of sulphocationite obtained by sulfonation of a polymer synthesized by polycondensation bottoms wastes of Shurtan gas-chemical complex (ShGChC) with furfural was investigated. Still bottoms waste from SGHC containing in its structure fragments of cyclohexane, cyclohexanone and linoleic acid present a great interest from the point of view of using for industrial wastes recycling. Cation exchange resin was tested in H - and Na-forms. Water hardness was determined by complexometric method in the presence of indicator chromogen black. Demineralization of industrial water from boiler plant with sulphocationite shows that the degree of softening of artesian water reaches the action level for the network and feed water boilers. Conducted laboratory and industrial tests of sulphocationite, developed at the Tashkent chemical-technological Institute (TashChTI), for softening artesian and industrial water, indicate that the cation exchange resin can be recommended in the processes of softening industrial water.

Keywords: analysis, cation, cyclohexanone, demineralization, ion, product, sulphocationite

p. 30-38 /

Melnikov I.O.
Rodionova S.A.
Maslennikova A.S.
Podobedov R.E.

Application of synthetic ion-exchange materials and activated carbons for removing of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions

On an example of Cr(VI) oxyanions removing from water sorption properties of a number of selected commercially available materials used for water treatment were investigated. Granular and fibrous synthetic ion-exchange materials, and granular carbon sorbents were chosen as the objects of the study. It was shown that strongly basic anion-exchange resins of type II with the polymer matrix obtained by copolymerization of polystyrene with divinylbenzene are the most effective sorbents which can be used for removal of Cr(VI) oxyanions from aqueous solutions. However, they are not selective as in the presence of anions of the most common mineral acids in water sorption capacity of these materials in respect of Cr(VI) anions decreases. The ability of coconut shell based activated carbons for sorption of Cr(VI) oxyanions from aqueous solutions was revealed. Activated carbons treated with acid demonstrated higher sorption efficiency and recovery rate of Cr(VI) from solutions under weakly acidic pH conditions.
Basing on the obtained results recommendations on the selection of filter media for household water purifiers were made.

Keywords: activated carbon, ion exchange resin, sorbent, water

p. 39-46 /

Volkova Z.V.
Brekhovskih V.F.

Influence of climatic factors on the chemical characteristics of the lower Volga River

The Lower Volga River suffer significant anthropogenic influence in connection with the receipt of pollutants from the entire basin. Therefore, it the influence of climatic factors on the hydro-chemical indicators of the Lower Volga was considered. Statistical approaches to identify the values of indicators of various probability were used. Obtained differences in the concentrations and flowes of substances, classes of quality of water, the excess fisheries maximum allowable concentration (MAC) for high-water and low-water years, their values for various probability give representation about the trends in the development of processes of water contamination when changing climatic factors.

Keywords: availability, flows, hydrochemical indicators, runoff

p. 47-55 /

Afonina E.Yu.
Itigilova M.C.

Zooplankton of the Argun River tributaries at different levels of water

Research of zooplankton of some of the Argun River tributaries were carried out during the low water period of 2006 and the summer floods in 2013. The composition of planktonic invertebrates noted 94 species and subspecies, of which 55 - Rotifera, 28 - Cladocera and 13 - Copepoda. The minimum qualitative and quantitative indicators were registered for heavily disturbed by gold mining river Sredniaia Borzia, maximum - for the lowland river Urulyungui. The main component of zooplanktocenoses were juvenile stages of copepods. In the dry summer they were accompanied by rotifers genus Euchlanis, in high-water - cladocerans from Chydoridae family. During the high water level in the rivers has been seen a steady multispecies zooplankton, which is based on eurybionts and inhabitants of shallow waters overgrown with aquatic vegetation. High water contributed to the increase in the diversity and abundance of rotifers and cladocerans.

Keywords: Argun River tributaries, biodiversity, structure, zooplankton

p. 57-64 /

Kipriyanova L.M.
Dolmatova L.A.
Bazarova B.B.
Cybekmitov G.C.

About hydro-chemical aspects of the ecology of representatives of Stuckenia (Potamogetonaceae) in lakes of Transbaikalian region

Until recently, there were only fragmentary information about the distribution and ecology of Stuckenia chakassiensis (Kaschina) Klinkova in the Eastern Siberia. The aim of the work was to study the hydro-chemical aspects of the ecology of Stuckenia chakassiensis in the Trans-Baikal in Siberia, as well as clarification of the ecological features of the other representatives of genus Stuckenia (Stuckenia pectinata (L.) Börner, Stuckenia vaginata (Turcz.) Holub) in brackish and saline lakes in the eastern part of their ranges in Russia. The main hydro-chemical parameters (salinity, ionic composition, nutrient content) in the surface layer of water of 27 water bodies of Transbaikalian region and the Republic of Buryatia, which is found the representatives of the genus Stuckenia. It is shown that in the majority of Transbaikalian lake with high salinity grows Stuckenia chakassiensis. The most narrow range of halo tolerance in the lakes of Transbaikalia was identified for Stuckenia vaginata (0,160-2,136 g/dm3), the widest – for Stuckenia chakassiensis (1,112–16,245 g/dm3). Thus, to the previously received information that in Western Siberia Stuckenia chakassiensis timed to the chloride-sodium lakes with high mineralization, added a large amount of data that in the Eastern Siberia shtukeniya khakassian successfully grows in the waters of other classes and groups, namely, in the bicarbonate-sodium, sulphate-sodium and bicarbonate-magnesium waters.

Keywords: East Siberia, hydrochemistry, lake salinity, Stuckenia, Stuckenia chakassiensis

p. 65-69 /

Miheeva T.M.

Revilation for the first time in Belarus of the intensive development of two alien, potentially toxic species from AnabaenopsisV.V. Miller, 1923 genera

For the first time in Belarus in Loshizkaya water system (the right tributary of Svisloch River, Dnieper’s basin) within the bounds of Minsk the intensive development of two alien, potentially toxic species from Anabaenopsis V.V. Miller genera Anabaenopsis arnoldii Aptekar and Anabaenopsis kelifii Kogan were revealed. Quantitative characteristics of these and others dominant species of cyanobacteria and total phytoplankton are presented.

Keywords: alien species, Anabaenopsis arnoldii, Anabaenopsis kelifii, Belarus

p. 70-74 /

Hutoryanskij V.A.
Hahinov V.V.
Namsaraev B.B.
Safronov A.Yu.
Kashevskij A.V.
Mineeva L.A.

Determining of the molecular sulfur in the healing mineral waters

Because of the complexity of analysis sulfur-containing components of sulfide mineral waters were poorly studied. Method ofmicrocolumn reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography shows the presence of molecular sulfur in curative mineralwater Novonukutskaya. The method was tested in the analysis of the selected samples by solid phase extraction from sulphidemineral water and therapeutic drug. The retention time and two-wave peak detection identifies sulfur S8 with a high degree of reliability. Based on the findings the origin and role of sulfur in sulfurous waters are discussed. It is assumed that S0 molecular sulfur in the sulfide mineral water, essentially formed by decomposition polysulfanes.

Keywords: a solid extraction, analysis of elemental sulfur, mineral waters, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, sulfune

p. 75-80 /

Solovyova A.A.
Lebedeva O.E.

Using of the catalyst system H2O2-Fe2+ (Fe3+) in the purification of water from dinitrophenols

The problem of chemical degradation of nitrophenols is part of the the actual environmental problem of neutralization of resistant to biodegradation xenobiotics released to the environment as a result of the development of industrial and agricultural production.
The aim of this work was to obtain experimental data on the feasibility of using hydrogen peroxide in combination with trivalent or by bivalent iron to oxidation-destructive impact on dinitrophenolic compounds in real systems - solutions prepared based on natural water. For this course oxidation of 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,6-dinitrophenol at 23°C in aqueous solution in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and iron sulfate (II) or (III) was studied. The change of dinitrophenols concentration was monitored by spectrophotometric method.
An experimentally established optimum ratio of reactants for the destruction of nitrophenol compounds and artificially maintained pH 3,0 ± 0,2 manages to reach the deep purification of aqueous solutions from nitrophenols. Replacement of distilled water for tap water or river substantially does not affect the speed and efficiency of the oxidation process of individual dinitrophenols. When using trivalent iron ions a slight decrease in the oxidation rate of substrates on initial phase of the process was observed. This is probably connected with peculiarities of the mechanisms of radical decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in systems containing two or trivalent iron ions.

Keywords: dinitrophenol, ferrous ions, hydrogen peroxide, oxidative destruction

p. 81-88 /

Kolmykov R.P.

The elemental composition of the tap water in Kemerovo city in winter season, its correction using household ways

The purpose of the study is the determination of the elemental composition of the crude, filtered and boiled tap water of the Kemerovo city and its suburbs.
As a method of determining the content of metals in the water optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (OES-ICP) has been selected due to its wide possibilities and rapidity.
Measurements were carried out on the optical-emission spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma iCAP 6500 DUO. To the water boiling an ordinary household enamel kettle and gas stove were used. For suburban water filtration filter of jug type with replaceable cartridge for hard water was used. For urban drinking water - with conventional (basic) cartridges. The volume of the filtered water was measured and compared with the amount declared by the manufacturer.
Measurements were made during the winter period of 2014-2015, in the normal mode of household filters using. The obtained values were averaged.
The study determined quantitatively B, Ba, Ca, Co, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Na, Pb, Si, Sr, Ti, Zn. The effect of boiling and filtering of water using household filters were investigated, depending on the extent of their use (from zero to 300% resource declared by the manufacturer) for the maintenance of defined elements.

Keywords: household filters, ICP-OES, Kemerovo, potable water

p. 89-93 /

Yakushin R.V.
Kolesnikov V.A.
Babusenko E.S.
Brodskij V.A
Chistolinov A.V.

Using of electrodischarged plasma of a spark and barrier discharges in order to water disinfection

The influence of a spark and a barrier discharge on water containing the cells of the main groups of microorganisms - Gram-positive and Gram-negative vegetative bacteria cells Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus, and yeast fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. A decrease of the concentration of viable microbial cells after treatment with suspensions of electrodischarge plasma was established and principal possibility of applying the method for disinfection of water was confirmed.

Keywords: barrier discharge, disinfection, low-temperature plasma, spark discharge

p. 3-8 /

Sulejmanov R.A,
Valeev T.K.
Egorova N.N.
Kantor E.A.
Syrygina D.A.
Egorova O.V.
Baktybaeva Z.B.
Rahmatullin N.R.

Ecological and hygienic assessment of the risk of the impact of the quality of drinking water on the metropolitan human health

The article presents the ecological and hygienic studies on the assessment of the potential adverse effects and levels of carcinogenic risk to public health of the city Ufa, associated with ingestion of drinking water. The results suggest a possible carcinogenic risk of drinking water for the health of the population of a large industrial city. The main contribution to the total value of the carcinogenic risk made: hexavalent chromium, arsenic, pentachlorophenol, dichloroacetic acid, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane. The use of chlorine and chlorine-containing disinfectants on the the water treatment step (disinfection) of drinking water helps to increase the quantitative content of carcinogens.

Keywords: potable water, risk to health of the population, water supply

p. 9-19 /

Kazachenok N.N.
Popova I.Ya.

Dynamics of radioactive contamination of the abiotic components of aquatic ecosystems of different types in the southern Urals

The article shows the dynamics of radioactive contamination of the water and sediments of three reservoirs: the Techa river, reservoir-10 Techa reservoirs, Lake Uruskul. All reservoirs were exposed to radioactive contamination as a result of the production association «Mayak». In all studied reservoirs (river, dam, closed lake) level of radioactive contamination of water decreases with time. At the same time the rate of decline is slightly higher than the decay. However, the oscillation amplitude of activity values in some samples is very high, making it difficult to forecast the situation. Radionuclides distribution profile of sediments in the river and the reservoir is very heterogeneous, shows a significant peak of activity of 137Cs and 239,240Pu in the layer. The depth of this layer is in the river, apparently depends on the time elapsed after the discharge of liquid radioactive waste (LRW), and on the location of sampling points relative to the source. Distribution of 90Sr has a different type and a few peaks at different depths. In the bottom sediments of the lake 90Sr and 137Cs have almost the same distribution and are mostly in the upper layer.

Keywords: Aquatic ecosystems, bottom sediments, contamination, water

p. 20-26 /

G.S. Alimova
E.S. Zemcova
Tokareva A.Yu.

The distribution of metals in sediments and macrozoobenthos of lower reaches of the Irtysh River

Irtysh River has a significant economic importance for the region, water biological resources, especially fish - whitefish, sturgeon, carp, perch and others. There are wintering holes in the lower reaches of the river, which play an important role in the preservation of the most valuable species of fish for all Ob-Irtysh basin. The chemical composition of bottom sediments of the river, their degree of contamination and the condition of the fodder base are still poorly studied. In addition, there are no data evaluating the potential danger for the fish of toxic substances that have accumulated in sediments and feeding organisms. Thus studies to assess the current ecological status of sediment and macrozoobenthos of the Irtysh River, under significant influence of the strong and long-term impacts of anthropogenic are relevant.
In the work using atomic-emission method the total content of metals (As, Cd, Co, Mo, Sr, Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn) in sediments and macrozoobenthos of lower reaches of the Irtysh River in the spring of 2015 was determined. The features of the distribution of total metal concentrations in the macrozoobenthos and sediments of the Lower Irtysh were determined. The values of metal concentrations in the sediments are reduced in a row Fe > Mn > Pb > Sr > Zn ≈ Cr > Ni > Cu > Co > As > Cd > Mo. The distribution of metals in the sediments of the Lower Irtysh obeys the Oddo-Harkins rule. In the sections of the river in the Tobolsk city area (river port) and the village Medvedchikova (Tobolsk district) adsorption of metal sediments - by sands, 2-8 times less than at the other stations, where sediments are loam, sandy loam, loamy sand or silty loam. For the first time the level of contamination of sediments by heavy metals on the geoaccumulation indices was assessed. Indices of accumulation of virtually all heavy metals are identified below zero, thus the water ecological zone of the river ecosystem refers to the area of standards. With the exception of lead compounds, the index of accumulation of which on the river sites, with the size of sediment particles less than 0.005 mm, has exceeded the unit, so that the level of sediment contamination on lead can be attributed from unpolluted to moderately polluted.
In the mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and chironomids (Chironomidae), in comparison with the oligochaetes (Oligocheata), was found the highest of all the studied groups of aquatic organisms concentrations of metals, the content of which is reduced in a row Fe > Sr> Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Ni > Mo.

Keywords: bottom sediments, geoaccumulation index, heavy metals, macrozoobenthos, the lower reaches of the Irtysh River