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Токсигенные цианобактерии: распространение, регуляция синтеза токсинов, способы их деструкции

Опубликовано в журнале «Вода: химия и экология» № 11 за 2017 год, стр. 125-139.
Рубрика: Научно-аналитические обзоры

 

Поляк Ю.М. кандидат технических наук, старший научный сотрудник, ФГБУН Санкт-Петербургский научно-исследовательский центр экологической безопасности Российской академии наук
Сухаревич В.И. доктор технических наук, главный научный сотрудник, ФГБУН Санкт-Петербургский научно-исследовательский центр экологической безопасности Российской академии наук

Аннотация:
Настоящий обзор содержит информацию о токсигенных цианобактериях, их распространении, особенностях токсинообразования и методах борьбы с ними. Возрастающая интенсивность «цветения» водоемов практически во всех странах мира вызывают опасения в связи с тем, что многие цианобактерии — возбудители «цветения», образуют сильнодействующие токсины. Наиболее распространенными и опасными из них являются гепатотоксины — микроцистины. Доказана их высокая токсичность для человека, животных, представителей зоопланктона. В обзоре представлены данные о возможной регуляции биосинтеза токсинов факторами окружающей среды. Показана ключевая роль азота и фосфора в этом процессе, влияние таких факторов как освещенность, температура, химические соединения. Тем не менее, многие вопросы механизма синтеза токсинов, их роли в жизнедеятельности самих цианобактерий и в природных процессах, остаются пока не решенными.
В настоящее время известен ряд способов физико-химического удаления токсинов из водоемов, однако в силу их экономических и экологических особенностей существует проблема разработки более эффективных и экологически приемлемых методов. К их числу многие авторы относят биологический метод, основанный на способности микроорганизмов к биодеградации цианотоксинов.

Ключевые слова: биодеградация, гепатотоксины, микроцистин, токсичность, цианобактерии

Ссылка для цитирования:
Поляк Ю.М., Сухаревич В.И. Токсигенные цианобактерии: распространение, регуляция синтеза токсинов, способы их деструкции // Вода: химия и экология. — 2017. — № 11. — c. 125-139. — http://watchemec.ru/article/28833/

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